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August 31, 2020

Best Books for IBPS PO X Exam Preparation 2020

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Friends, the official notification of IBPS PO / MT X for the year 2020 has been released today. So here we are presenting you the list of useful books for your preparation. All the Best :)

Important Books for IBPS PO X 2020 (Preliminary and Main)

Quantitative Aptitude / Data Analysis & Interpretation :

  • Magical Book on Quicker Maths by M Tyra 
    • Reason for buying this Book : This book is helpful to learn new short tricks if you are preparing your self )
    • Link to buy this book : Click HERE to buy this book
  • Quantitative Aptitude For Competitive Examinations by RS Aggrawal
    • Reason for buying this book : This has been a standard book for quantitative aptitude from many years. This book consists of a number of practice problems with detailed explanations. The problem with this book is, this book follows traditional approach and it doesn't focus on shortcut methods. Still I highly recommend this book for clearing basics of each topic.
    • Link to buy this book : Click HERE to buy this book
  • Fast Track Objective Arithmetic by Rajesh Verma (Arihant) Latest Edition 2020
    • Reason for buying this Book : This Book also consists lots of shortcut techniques for each topic, but you can't start your preparation with this book because the intro parts of the topics are not good. So you should buy this book after clearing the basic concepts.
    • Link to buy this book : Click HERE to buy this book
  • How to Prepare for Data Interpretation for CAT by Arun Sharma
    • Reason for buying this Book : Bit expensive book but worth the price. Useful for beginners as well as the people who want to practice DI problems of higher difficulty level. 

August 29, 2020

Meet the new Chairman of SBI : Dinesh Kumar Khara

The present Chairman of the State Bank of India (SBI), Mr. Rajnish Kumar is going to retire on 7th October 2020. Earlier, there were speculations that he is going to get an extension. But it is confirmed that Dinesh Kumar Khara is going to take the control of India's largest lender.

The Banks Board Bureau (BBB) today recommended Mr Khara as the next Chairman of State Bank of India (SBI) after interviewing four managing directors of SBI. Challa Sreenivasulu Setty has also gave tough competition but the interviewers headed by former union personnel secretary Bhanu Pratap Sharma has recommended Khara as the first choice candidate to succeed Rajnish Kumar as the bank's chariman.

Mr Khara, who turned 59 yesterday, is currently working as the managing director of the Global Banking and Subsidiaries (GB&S) wing of SBI and supervises the businesses of non-banking subsidiaries of the bank. Mr Khara, 56, did his Masters in Business Administration from FMS, New Delhi. He joined SBI as a probationary officer in 1984. He played a major role in merging SBI with its five associate banks and the Bhartiya Mahila Bank.

A final decision in this regard will be taken by the appointments committee of cabinet headed by Prime Minister Narendra Modi.   The current chairman of the SBI Rajnish Kumar took over as the SBI Chariman in 2017, and replaced Arundhati Bhattacharya.

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August 21, 2020

Full List of National Sports Awardees 2020 (Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna, Dronacharya, Arjuna Awards)

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The Sports Ministry today announced the winners of National Sports Awards for the year 2020. These awards are given every year to recognize and reward excellence in sports. India's vice-captain and opening batsman Rohit Sharma will be receiving India's highest sporting honour Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award along with Vinesh Phogat (Asian Games gold medalist), Manika Batra (table tennis champion), Rani Rampal (India hockey women's captain) and Mariappan Thangavelu (Paralympic gold medalist).  Rohit had a sensational run in the year 2019 - where he became the first batsman ever to score five centuries in an ODI World Cup. Before Rohit, only 3 Indian cricketers - Sachin Tendulkar, MS Dhoni and Virat Kohli have received this highest sporting honour. Rani Rampal, who will be honoring with Khel Ratna will be the 1st Women's Hockey player and only the 3rd player of hockey after Dhanraj Pillay and Sardar Singh to receive the award. These five sportspersons will receive a medallion, a certificate, and a cash prize of Rs 7.5 lakh.

Apart from these, 27 sportspersons will be conferred with Arjuna Award along with cricketer Ishant Sharma, women Cricketer Deepti Sharma, Archer Atanu Das and Shooter Manu Bhasker. 

These awards were finalized by a Selection Committee headed by Justice (Retd.) Mukundakam Sharma (former Judge of Supreme Court of India) and other members comprising of eminent sports persons, persons having experience in sports journalism and sports administration, etc. The awardees will receive their awards from the President Ramnath Kovind of India at a specially organized function through virtual mode from Rashtrapati Bhawan on 29th August, 2020 (National Sports Day). Here is the compete winners list of National Sports Awards 2020.

Latest List of 2020 National Sports Awards Winners


  • Rohit Sharma (Cricket)
  • Mariyappan Thangavelu (Para Athletics)
  • Manika Batra (Table Tennis)
  • Vinesh Phogat (Wrestling)
  • Rani Rampal (Hockey)


 Life- Time Category

  • Dharmendra Tiwary (Archery)  
  • Purushotham Rai (Athletics) 
  • Shiv Singh (Boxing)  
  • Romesh Pathania (Hockey)  
  • Krishan Kumar Hooda (Kabaddi)  
  • Vijay Bhalchandra Munishwar (Para Powerlifting)  
  • Naresh Kumar (Tennis) 
  • Om Parkash Dahiya (Wrestling)    

Regular Category 

  • Jude Felix Sebastian (Hockey)
  • Yogesh Malviya (Mallakhamb)
  • Jaspal Rana (Shooting)
  • Kuldeep Kumar Handoo (Wushu)
  • Gaurav KhannaPara (Badminton) 


  1. Atanu Das (Archery)
  2. Shiva Keshavan (Luge)
  3. Dutee Chand (Athletics)
  4. Satwiksairaj Rankireddy (Badminton)
  5. Chirag Shetty (Badminton)
  6. Vishesh Bhrighuvanshi (Basketball)
  7. Ishant Sharma (Cricket)
  8. Deepti Sharma (Cricket)
  9. Lovlina Borgohain (Boxing)
  10. Manish Kaushik (Boxing)
  11. Sawant Ajay Anant (Equestrian)
  12. Sandhesh Jhingan (Football)
  13. Aditi Ashok (Golf)
  14. Akashdeep Singh (Hockey)
  15. Deepika Thakur (Hockey)
  16. Deepak Niwas Hooda (Kabaddi)
  17. Sarika Kale (Kho-kho)
  18. Suyash Jadhav (Para-Swimming)
  19. Manish narwal (Para-Shooting)
  20. Sandeep Chaudhary (Para-Athletics)
  21. Saurabh Chaudhary (Shooting)
  22. Manu Bhaker (Shooting)
  23. Sanil Shetty (Table-Tennis)
  24. Divij Sharan (Tennis)
  25. Divya Kakran (Wrestling)
  26. Rahul Aware (Wrestling)
  27. Dattu Bhokanal (Rowing)


  • Kuldip Singh Bhullar (Athletic)
  • Jincy Philips (Athletic)
  • Pradeep Shrikrishna Gandhe (Badminton)
  • Trupti Murgunde (Badminton)
  • N. Usha (Boxing)
  • Lakha Singh (Boxing)
  • Sukhvinder Singh Sandhu (Football)
  • Ajit Singh (Hockey)
  • Manpreet Singh (Kabaddi)
  • J. Ranjith KumarPara  (Athletics)
  • Satyaprakash TiwariPara (Badminton)
  • Manjeet Singh (Rowing)
  • Late Sachin Nag (Swimming)
  • Nandan P Bal (Tennis)
  • Netarpal Hooda (Wrestling)


  • Anita Devi (Land Adventure)
  • Col. Sarfraz Singh (Land Adventure)
  • Taka Tamut (Land Adventure)
  • Narender Singh (Land Adventure)
  • Keval Hiren Kakka (Land Adventure)
  • Satendra Singh (Water Adventure)
  • Gajanand Yadava (Air Adventure)
  • Late Magan Bissa (Life Time Achievement)


  • Panjab University, Chandigarh


  • Identification and Nurturing of Budding and Young Talent
    • Lakshya Institute
    • Army Sports Institute
  • Encouragement to sports through Corporate Social Responsibility
    • Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) Ltd
  • Employment of sportspersons and sports welfare measures
    • Air Force Sports Control Board
  • Sports for Development 
    • International Institute of Sports Management (IISM)
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August 20, 2020

Govt launches free PDF Current Affairs Magazine 'New India Samachar'

Good news friends, the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (MIB) has brought out a new magazine titled "New India Samachar".  The main aim of this e-magazine is to provide correct information about various initiatives taken by the Government of India for the benefit of the common people. Unlike Yojana magazine, which covers socio-economic issues in the country, also being published by the Government of the India, "New India Samachar" magazine will be very useful for Competitive Exam aspirants as it covers all important cabinet decisions, Man ki baat programmes, and will give insight into topical issues in its unique way.

New India Samachar Download Link

The New India Samachar is fortnightly magazine. It will be available at the official website of the Bureau of Outreach & Communication ( for download. Another advantage of
this magazine is, this magazine will be available in 12 major Indian languages along with English, namely Hindi, Gujarati, Marathi, Telugu, Tamil, Kannada, Urdu, malayalam, Bengali, Assamese, Punjabi and Odia. The reader may click the link of the language in which he/she wants to read the magazine.

Download New India Samachar e-magazine in your Mother Tongue from HERE

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August 19, 2020

Govt Approves Common Eligibility Test (CET) for IBPS, SSC and Indian Railways Recruitments 2020

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In a ground breaking decision, the Indian Government today approved a proposal to setting up of National Recruitment Agency (NRA). From now onwards, this NRA will conduct a Common Eligibility Test (CET) for selection to non-gazetted posts in the central government and public sector banks (RRB, SSC & IBPS).

"The NRA will prove to be a boon for crores of youngsters," PM Modi said in a tweet". There will be single entrance examination for all non-gazetted posts — Group B and C posts. 

What is this Common Eligibility Test (CET) conducted by NRA ?

The National Recruitment Agency will conduct a common eligibility test for Staff Selection Commission (SSC), the Railway Recruitment Boards (RRBs) and the Institute of Banking Service Personnel (IBPS). Instead of appearing for different exams, the candidates should appear for the CET exam conducted by NRA. Candidates who qualify this CET can apply to any recruitment agencies for higher level of examination.

3 year validity 

The Merit list of Common Entrance Test (CET) will remain valid for three years during which the candidate can apply for jobs in different sectors depending upon his aptitude and preferences. They can improve score by appearing again and best score will be considered.

You can write your exam in your mother tongue 

As of now, now only two languages ​​(English & Hindi) were allowed to take exams, but through the CET being conducted by NRA, the aspirants appear for the common eligibility test in 12 languages.

"Through the CET, it will eliminate multiple tests and save precious time as well as resources. This will also be a big boost to transparency," Narendra Modi announced. . "There are almost more than 20 recruitment agencies in central govt. Although we are making exams of only three agencies common as of now, in course of time we will be able to have CET for all recruitment agencies, C Chandramouli, secretary to the government said.

Addressing a press conference, Union Minister Prakash Javadekar asserted that the step will benefit the job-seeking youth of the country.  "It's one of the most landmark reforms in the history of independent India. It'll bring in ease of recruitment, selection, job placement and ease of living particularly for certain sections of society which are at a disadvantage on one account or the other," said Union Minister Jitendra Singh.

As of now, the National Recruitment Agency will take the examination for only three institutions, but in future, all the central institutions will take the examination. About 2.5 crore students will take part in these three institutions.

Common Eligibility Test by NRA : Important Points you should Know (Quick Glance)

  • A multi-agency body called the National Recruitment Agency (NRA) will conduct a Common Eligibility Test (CET) to screen/shortlist candidates for the Group B and C (non-technical) posts.
  • NRA will have representatives of Ministry of Railways, Ministry of Finance/Department of Financial Services, the SSC, RRB & IBPS.
  • CET to be conducted for 3 levels : Graduate, Higher Secondary (12th), 10th Pass for those non-technical posts to which recruitment is presently carried out by SSC, RRBs & IBPS.
  • Examination Centres in every District of the country.
  • Based on CET score, final selection to be made through specialised Tier 2/Tier 3 exams conducted by respective recruitment agency.
  • To be conducted in Multiple Indian Languages.
  • Score valid for 3 years, no bar on attempts.
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How to make Eco Friendly Ganesha at Home ?

Note : This post is not about the Short-Cut tricks or Current Affairs. I sincerely apologize for the inconvenience if you felt this post is irrelevant. This is just a post for my blog readers, friends and especially for those people who are the real fans of Ganeshji. A silly attempt to bring back the childhood memories and save the nature (yea, I'm not sure about this... bt hope atleast two or three people will change their mind set).

Today's morning me and my friends made a clay ganesha (Not the one that Parvati made like the legends say, but the simpler Shivani version) that we can make for the puja coming up day after tomorrow, or even for fun. Trust me guys, it will give you great fun (if you have a badmash cousin like mine). I've been making my own clay Ganesha for quite a few years now, a pure nostalgic need that takes me back to my childhood.

There are many videos out there that explain how to make one, but each are slightly different in approach, and materials used. Here are some simple methods to make your own Ganesha. Use whatever works best for you, and don’t forget the single most reason for doing this. No matter how it turns, it is your very own Ganesha, so be proud and have faith. Wish you a good year ahead :)

How to make a Clay Ganesha ?

  • First make two balls one bigger which forms the body and the little ball forms the head.
  • Make two long coils(snakes) for hands and slightly thicker ones for legs.
  • Place the balls one upon another and merge the ends that touch. Attach the legs to the body part and merge them well into the body.
  • Now add the hands to the upper body part and merge them well.
  • Add another coil to the head part to form the trunk. Slightly flatten the free ends of the hands and legs to form palm and feet.
  • Create small balls of clay and flatten them to look like ears. Attach these to the sides of the head and merge the ends very well into the head portion.
  • Now, take a cotton bud dip it in water and try and smoothen out the clay all over. Make sure that you don’t damage the structure, do it very gently. And take care not to use loads of water.
  • Then add two little coils for the tusks. Using a fork make impressions on the ears. Using toothpick mar the eyes, fingers and toes.
  • If you want to be more creative, you can opt for four hands and other additions like jewels. Now leave the Ganesha Idol to dry but not in direct sunlight as cracks may appear. After it dries, you can paint eyes, ‘tilak’, eyebrows etc.

How to make Paper Ganesha ?

Materials needed for Paper Ganesha : Paper, ghati gum, whitening powder, flour, aluminum foil or clay.
  • Depending on the size of your idol, tear waste paper and soak it in water. Once soaked create fine pulp out it by grinding it.
  • Take 150 grams of ghati gum and dilute it in water and mix it with paper pulp.
  • Leave the pulp for a day and on the next day, the pulp will be like chutney. Add some whitening powder to it.
  • Now the pulp will be like chappati atta. Make chappatis out of the atta. And stick them to the Ganesha mould.
  • Now create a flour paste. Cover the mould with two to three layers of flour paste and finally cover it will paper and leave it to dry.
  • Once dried, pull off the protective layer of flour. Use a brush or sandpaper to smoothen the idol.
  • Use water colors to paint them.
  • Draw eyes, eyebrows, tilak and other aspects.
  • Make ornaments, crown and other items using aluminum foil or clay.
If you are interested in carving, you can create Ganesh from vegetables like pumpkin. The choice of the vegetables depends on the size and style of the Ganesha you intend to create. You can also use flowers or rangolis to create Ganesha on the ground or on boards.

Check this... this is made of Paper Boxes.

Here are some videos on Making Clay Ganesha

May everyone will get a successful banking job before we celebrate Him again. I’d be very happy if you could share this with others, so I can take a peek. It’s always heartening to know one’s time was worthy and was of some use. Good Day :)

Shivani Sharma 
17th September 2012

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August 14, 2020

Essay - Relevance of Gandhian Principles in Today's Time


Relevance of Gandhian Principles in Today's Time

  • Gandhian principles; non-violence, self sufficiency, communal harmony, simple living and truth. 
  • Relevance of Gandhian principles in today's world.
  • Relevance of these principles to tackle present day problems such as poverty, illiteracy, unemployment etc. 
  • Gandhian principles helps in to reshape the lost morality, regain humanity etc.
Gandhian principles or value system is something that stirred the entire India at one point of time. It ignited a revolution, that took the whole of nation in its stride and lasted till we were able to force the Britishers to leave India. This value system gave the nation the principles of truth, non-violence, satyagrah which paved way to people's heart. We are still awed by the uniqueness of Gandhiji's principled approach. He endorsed simple living and high thinking while practising.

Gandhiji preached 'truth' or `satya' which made us not to withstand a lie. He preached `Satyagrah' and in fact rallied a desperate mass of people with him all over the country. This helped the British empire to think about leaving India. This methodology appealed to the conscience of mankind and was based on the assumption that peaceful protests are a very powerful tool.

August 12, 2020

Success Story - SBI Clerks (Aparna)

Name : Aparna Pasupuleti

Qualification : M. Sc 

State : Andhra Pradesh

Hi, I am Aparna from Rajahmundry (Andhra Pradesh). I used to read so many success stories in Gr8 Ambitionz from last 2 years, but I never thought that I will be sharing mine here. I am very happy now. But I struggled alot during these past 2 years. I am going to share these with my fellow great ambitions brother and sisters. I will be happy if atleast one from you got motivated from my story. 


August 10, 2020

How to get into Public Sector Banking Jobs 2020 (Career Growth and Oopportunities)

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About Banking Jobs in India

India is one of the fastest growing economies of the world with its banking and finance  industry being one of the leading sectors. A bank is generally believed to be an institution which accepts deposits and gives loans.

But a bank has much more to it than just the aforesaid two functions. Banks offer various services and facilities to customers. They safeguard money and valuables, provide loans, credit, and payment services, such as checking accounts, money orders, and cashier‘s cheques and also offer investment  and insurance products. Similarly, job opportunities in Banks are not just limited to cashiers or clerks. They include a wide variety of banking jobs from Probationary Officers, Specialist Officers to Assistant General Managers and what not.

Types of PSBs (Public Sector Banks):

There are a total of 12 Public Sector Banks in India alongside 1 state-owned Payments Bank. They are :
  1. State Bank of India
  2. Punjab National Bank
  3. Bank of Baroda
  4. Union Bank of India
  5. Canara Bank
  6. Punjab & Sind Bank
  7. Indian Bank
  8. Bank of Maharashtra
  9. Bank of India  
  10. Central Bank of India 
  11. Indian Overseas Bank
  12. UCO Bank and
  13. India Post Payments Bank (IPPB)

Types of Banking Recruitment Exams in India

  1. IBPS (Institute of Banking and Personal Selections)
    • IBPS PO-with around 1000  Vacancies in the year 2020.
    • IBPS Specialist Officers-approx 1000 vacancies
      • HR
      • Marketing
      • Law
      • IT
      • Agriculture Officer
      • Rajbhasha Adhikari
    • IBPS Clerk 2020 -approx 10,000 vacancies
    • IBPS RRBs
  2. SBI (State Bank of India)
    • SBI PO
    • SBI Specialist Officers
    • SBI Clerk
  3. RBI (Reserve Bank of India)
    • RBI Grade B Officers
    • RBI Assistant

Salary, Perks and Allowances in Banking Sector

The CTC (Cost to Company) of a PO including Basic Pay, DA and all other perks for a public sector bank can come to Rs. 5.45 lacs and can even go upto Rs 8.2 lacs depending on the bank.

In State Bank Group: Rs 20,000 p/m House Accommodation Lease in metro cities with which one can avail a King Size stay- well-furnished AC flat ;) and many other perks and facilities like travelling allowances, medical facilities, mobile, newspaper & magazine bill reimbursement, late sitting ,holiday homes, furniture allowances and so on. :)
Grade B officers can expect emoluments of 21000-1000-30000-EB-1000-32000-1100-36400 plus components like DA, HRA etc  which bring the annual package close to Rs.10 lakh. They also receive several benefits, concessions and reimbursements.

How to prepare for Banking Exams

  • Websites
  • Magazines
    • Banking Service Chronicles monthly magazine
    • Banking and you monthly magazine
  • Newspaper
    • The Hindu (Editorial & Business and economy section)
    • Any local newspaper as Home State awareness is must
  • Daily practice one set of model question paper

Future Scopes : Choose according to your interest  :)

  • Investment Bankers : Investment Bankers are usually recruited from educational institutions. After having a good amount of experience in other areas of banking, one can also switch to investment banking through walk-in interviews, if available. Investment bankers earn differently depending upon particular banks and the employee’s educational qualification. Some MBA graduates earn Rs 40 lakh annually. Pay scale in investment banking is very relative to one’s performance.
  • World Bank, IMF, ADB – Can switch to such international institutes after gaining experiences.
  • IAS : Many PO every year clears India’s most prestigious exam IAS
  • MBA (IIMs, IIFT, FMS)– If you are just a graduate, one can take the experience and go for Highers Studies.
Get Inspired:
  • Arundhati Bhattacharya (SBI Chairperson) and Chanda Kochhar (ICICI MD & CEO) is a shining example of how far POs can go – Both started off as a PO/Management Trainee and is today the Head of their respective organizations.
  • Few other profiles from Banking Industry-Source intranet_site_SBBJ
    • M R Das– is a post-graduate in Economics from prestigious Delhi School of Economics and CAIIB. He has cedit two book and over 150 articles in his personal capacity, besides several official reports. He has been a member of RBI Committees on Deposit Insurance.
    • Ravi Kant – is presently Chief manager and faculty (international banking) at State Bank Academy, Gurgaon. His qualifications include MBA, BSc, PGDTFM, CTM, CAIIB, Certificate in Trade Finance and Certificate in AML/KYC. He has joined as PO in State bank of Mysore and work as branch manager and so on. He has published several articles in reputed journals on Forex and Treasury and written several articles in The Indian Banker.
    • Dr K Srinivasa Rao– is a faculty at NIBM, Pune. He is retired as general manager (planning) of Bank of Baroda. His academic accomplishments include a doctorate in economics, MBA with specialisation in finance, LLB and diploma in bank management. He has been a speaker at various seminars/conferences on topic related to the economy, banking sector reforms, risk management and bank consolidation.
Good Luck
By Miss Brahma-Assistant Manager (P.O.)
State Bank of India

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Beware of Fake Indian Railways Recruitment Notifications 2020

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Two days ago a prominent news paper has published an advertisement calling for applications against 5,285 posts in eight categories on outsourcing basis in Indian Railways on 11 years contract. From then onwards, this notification has been circulating in various social media platforms like whatsapp, facebook and twitter. Some of the other newspapers also published about this recruitment notification. The notification has been issued by an organization titled Avestran Infotech stating as their official website. The organization also asked the applicants to deposit Rs. 750/- as online fee and exam charges stating last date for the applications is 10th September 2020. Ofcourse it is too good to be true because lakhs of jobless aspirants have been desperately waiting for Railway Recruitment jobs in the year 2020.

But unfortunately this is a fake notification released by a fraud organization to cash in job aspirants' weakness. Some people got suspicious because the Indian Railways always recruit people using the 21 Railway Recruitment Boards and 16 Railway Recruiemtn Cells and NEVER appoint any private organizations to recruit on behalf of it.

Luckily the Indian Railways today released a statement stating the recruitment notification is fake. The organiztion has said that advertisement for any Railway recruitment is always done by Indian Railways only and no private agency has been authorized to do the same. 

The vacancies on Indian Railways are filled up by giving wide publicity through Centralized Employment Notifications. The notifications will be published through Employment News and Rozgar Samachar and an indicative notice is given in National Daily and Local Newspapers. It is also displayed on the official websites of RRBs and RRCs. The Railways has initiated it's investigation and is going on to take strictest action as per law against this fraud recruitment organization and persons involved in the matter. So it is advised the aspirants should cross check from the official websites before applying to any recruitment notification.

Check the press note released by the Government of India regarding this fake recruitment notification from HERE

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Essay : How will the Abrogation of Article 370 Benefit J&K and Ladakh ?

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Article 370 was included in the Constitution of India on 17th October 1949 and exempted Jammu & Kashmir from the Indian Constitution (except Article 1 and Article 370 itself). It further allowed J&K to draft its own Constitution and restricted Parliament's legislative powers in respect of J&K. Consultation of the state government was a requisite for extending central law on subjects included in the Instrument of Accession (IoA). However, the concurrence of the state government was mandatory for extending it to other matters. With the Indian Independence Act, 1947 the British India get divided into India and Pakistan and at the same time the IoA came into existence.

The Act provided to the nearly 600 princely states three options : to remain an independent country, join Dominion of India or join Dominion of Pakistan - and this joining with either of the two countries was to be through an IoA. The state willing to join was given the choice of specifying the terms on which it agreed to join.

Article 370 itself mentions Article 1, which includes J&K in the list of states and has been described as a tunnel through which the Constitution is applied to J&K. Article 3 of the J&K Constitution declares J&K to be an integral part of India.

Recent Developments Around Article 370

The contentious Article 370, which provided a special status to J&K, has been revoked recently on August 5 by the present Modi Government. J&K has further been divided into two UTs - J&K and Ladakh. This far-reaching decision seeks to redraw the map and future of a region at the centre of protracted militancy. The two UTs would come to existence on October 31.

The President Ram Nath Kovind in his Independence Day speech expressed his confidence about the immence benefits that the new law and bifurcation of the state of J&K would bring. The changes made in J&K and Ladakh would enable the people to access and enjoy the same rights, privileges and facilities as their fellow citizens in the rest of the country.

Besides progressive, egalitarian laws and provisions related to the Right to Education, people of the region would also be able to access public information throught the Right to Information. The traditionally deprived communities will have access to reservations in education and employment and other facilities. The abolition of unequal practices such as instant triple talaq would serve justice to the Muslim women of the region.

Key Notes from the Prime Minister's Address Post Revocation of Article 370

  • Besides helping in the development of the youth in the region, this act will usher in a new dawn there.
  • Jammu & Kashmir will witness assembly elections from now onwards and people there will have a Chief Minister, MLAs and ministers who will represent them and people will also be choosing their representatives.
  • After 1947, many people who came to India couldn't contest polls in Jammu & Kashmir as they had rights everywhere, except in Jammu & Kashmir. Now with the scrapping of Article 370, the rights of such migratedpeople will be restored.
  • More so, the valley suffered from terrorism and violence where Articles 35A and 370 were often used as tools to spread the same.
  • When laws were made for the entire country, J&K was always exempted from the benefits of such progressive laws.
  • All J&K workers will be benefitted under the employment schemes provided by the government.
  • The decision of creating two UTs namely Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh was taken by the government after constructive discussions and weighted options. The region will witness the opening of IITs and IIMs and after the normalization of condition in the region, the status of "Statehood" will be brought back in Jammu and Kashmir.
  • The state can become the biggest tourist destination as the government is working on providing a peaceful environment for tourists and the creative bodies (film & theatre) to engage with the state.
  • Sports will get a boost and sporting talents will be provided with the much needed infrastructure to excel.
  • Many endemic plants grown in Jammu and Kashmir can be used for their medicinal properties.
  • Ladakh can become a solar power house and play a crucial role in International Solar Alliance. Without any sort of discrimination, there will be development in the UT.
  • The separatists and their separatists' tendencies will now be given befitting reply by the people.
  • People in the valley region will celebrate festivities without any hurdles.
  • The dreams of accelerated development, effective and transparent governance and yet a smaller footprint of government in people's everyday life would now be realized with ease.

Key Changes :

  • The ending of the special status of J&K in the India Union will now let the government extend all provisions of the Constitution to the State in one go. Besides this, it will also allow all citizens to buy property and vote in the State.
  • All Central laws, instruments and treaties will now be extended to Kashmir. The drastically altered Article 370 will however stay on the statute books.
  • The Union Territory of J&K will have a legislature, but Ladakh will not have the same.
  • The Bill proposes wide powers to the Lieutenant Governor of the proposed Union Territory of J&K and makes it the "duty" of the Chief Minister of the Union Territory to "communicate" all administrative decisions and proposals of legislation with the LG.
  • The new Union Territories of J&K and Ladakh will see the application of the recommendations of a Central Committee within a year.
  • Until all the allocations of employees of State public sector undertakings and autonomous bodies are determined, they will continue in their posts for another year.
  • The police and pubic order is to be with the Centre.
  • The notification amends the expression "Constituent Assembly", contained in the provision to clause (3) of Article 370, to mean "Legislative Assembly".

Impact :

The tabling of the proposed Reorganization Bill indicates the end of the long reign of the 1954 order that had introduced a provision to Article 3 that states that "no Bill providing for increasing or diminishing the area of the State of J&K or altering the name of that State shall be introduced in Parliament without the consent of the Legislature of that State". That power of the State Legislature to give prior consent does not exist anymore.

With this, the Parliamentary laws including that of reservation, would apply to J&K as it does in other parts of the country. It further madates that no proclamation of Emergency on grounds "only of international disturbance or imminent danger shall have effect" in the State unless with the concurrence of the State government

This has been called by the government as the end of "positive discrimination"and the closing of the 'gap' between residents of J&K and citizens of other parts of the country.

shared by Nisheeta Mirchandani
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August 09, 2020

Highlights of Socio Economic and Caste Census 2011

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Hi I am Sarath Chandra. Here I am sharing highlights of Socio Economic and Caste Census 2011, which is very important for competitive exams. The Socio Economic and Cast Census 2011 or simply SECC 2011 is a study of socio economic status of rural and urban households and allows ranking of households based on predefined parameters. The SECC 2011 has 3 census components which were conducted by three separate authorities but under the overall coordination of Department of Rural Development in the Government of India. 
  • The Census in Rural Areas has been conducted by the Department of Rural Development (DoRD)
  • The Census in Urban areas is under the administrative jurisdiction of the Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation (MoHUPA)
  • The Caste Census is under the administrative control of Ministry of Home Affairs: Registrar General of India (RGI) and Census Commissioner of India.
The Ministry of Rural Development commenced the Socio-Economic Caste Census-2011 on 29th June 2011 through a comprehensive door to door enumeration across the country. Here are the major highlights of SECC 2011 in competitive exam point of view. Happy Reading :)

Important Highlights of Socio-Economic and Caste census (SECC) 2011:

  • SECC 2011 is unique paperless census
  • This is the first caste census done in independent India
  • The last caste that happen in India is 1932
  • Total households in the country - 24.39 crore
  • The total households in villages - 17.91 crore
  • How many crore households are considered as deprived in rural area - 10.69 crore
  • How many families living in villages belong to SC/ST categories - 21.53% or 3.86 crore
  • Highest number of SC population  - panjab(36.74%)
  • Highest number of ST population - Mizoram(98.79)
  • Highest mobile penetration state in rural areas - UttaraPradesh
  • Lowest mobile Penetration state in rural areas - Chattisgarh
  • How many rural household earn below 5000 rupees month - 13.34 cr
  • How many rural household earn 10000 and more - 1.48 cr
  • Which state has highest number of manual scavenger  - Tripura
  • Which state has zero manual scavenger  - Delhi
  • How much percent of rural households in the country pay income tax  - 4.58%
  • How many households in rural areas are landless - 5.37 crore or 29.97%
  • In which state landness household is higher - Kerala
  • Which states with the lowest rates of landlessness  - J &K and Himachal Pradesh
  • How many families in villages that live in houses of one room with ‘kaccha’ walls and roof - 2.37 crore or 13.25%
  • How many house holds in rural areas has land line phone - 17.85 lak or 1%
  • How many household having mobile phone in villages - 12.24 cr or 68.35%
  • How many illiterate number of people in rural areas - 3.1 cr or 17.31%
  • How many rural household having refrigerator  - 1.97 cr or 11.04%
  • How many rural household paying income tax in India - 6%
  • How many rural people have considered deprived or poor - 8.96 cr
  • No adult member in household between age 18 and 59 in rural areas  - 65.15 lac or 3.64%
  • Female headed household with no adult male member between 16 and 59 in rural areas  - 68.96 lac or 3.85%
  • Member with no other able bodied adult member  - 7.16 lac or 040%
  • Households with no literate adult above age 25 years in areas  - 4.21 cr or 23.52%
  • How many rural household with one salaried member - 2.50 cr
  • Average size of a rural Indian household  - 4.93
  • Highest size of a rural Indian household  - 6.28 ---------Uttara Pradesh
  • Lowest size of a rural Indian household  - 3.86 ----Andhra pradesh
  • How many percent of trans gender in rural population  - 0.1%
  • Highest rural illiterate  - Rajasthan
  • Lowest rural illiterate  - Kerala
  • The percentage of Scheduled Caste (SC) households paying income tax  - 3.49%
  • Scheduled Tribe (ST) tax-paying rural households   - 3.34%
  • Manual casual labour in rural areas - 9.16 cr
  • Cultivation in rural areas - 5.39cr

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    Essay on 124th Constitutional Amendment - Need and Purpose behind 10% Reservation for Economically Weaker Sections (EWS)

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    The Parliament of India, in its winter session, has passed the Constitution (One Hundred and Twenty-Fourth Amendment) Bill, 2019 on 9th January, 2019. It aims to provide 10 per cent reservation in jobs and educational institutions to economically backward sections of citizens in the general category. Thus, the bill has now become law. The purpose of introducing this amendment was to ensure economic and educational empowerment of the weaker sections of the general category, as they have been denied their due place in Indian society due to poverty, in contrast to the SCs, STs and OBCs, who had been provided reservations in the Constitution. 

    The history of reservations in India goes back to the days of colonial rule. However, reservations in concrete form were drafted into India's Constitution by the Constituent Assembly. It carried forward the commitment to reservations for Scheduled Castes and Tribes. Thus, quotas for SCs and STs were the only explicit reservations that were written in at that time. Then, in 1990, the Other Backward Classes (OBCs) were given 27 per cent reservation when the Government of India accepted the Mandal Commission's report. However, in 1992, the Supreme Court, in the India Sawhney v/s Union of India case, capped caste-based reservation to a maximum of 50 per cent. The exception was in the state of Tamil Nadu, which already had 69 per cent reservations for various sections. The law was subsequently included in 1994 into the Ninth Schedule of the Constitution to protect it from judicial review.

    There has been a crying need for such a provision in the Constitution of India. Such demand has been raised by various sections of the higher castes, especially economically weaker section, for many years to increase the 50 per cent cap in job reservation keeping their interest in mind. This includes demands from Thakurs in Uttar Pradesh, Rajputs in Rajasthan, Jats in Haryana, Patel Patidars in Gujarat and Kapus in Telangana and Andhra Pradesh. Thus, the bill seeks to provide for the advancement of 'Economically Weaker Sections' (EWS) of Indian citizens. 

    The 124th Amendment has amended two fundamental rights. The first is Article 15, which prohibits discrimination on the grounds of race, religion, caste, sex or place of birth. This has been amended to additionally permit the government to provide for the advancement of 'economically weaker sections'. Further, upto 10 per cent of seats may be reserved for such sections for admission in educational institutions. Such reservation will not apply to minority educational institutions. 

    The second is Article 16, which prohibits discrimination in employment in government offices. This has been amended to permit the government to reserve upto 10 per cent of all posts for the 'economically weaker sections' of citizens. 

    The reservation of upto 10 per cent for these sections in educational institutions and public employment will be in addition to the existing reservations. The Union Government will notify the 'economically weaker sections' of citizens on the basis of family income and other indicators of economic disadvantage. The law's current status is that the criteria for the Union Government have been decided. The states are in the process of finalising their criteria. However, some states have already approved similar amendments to their laws. These include Gujarat and Bihar. 

    The decision to provide 10 per cent reservation to 'economically backward' upper castes is for all those communities/ classes that do not come under the 50 per cent quota as mandated by the Supreme Court. The decision effectively means that these deprived people will now be able to enjoy benefits of reservation in government jobs, an advantage that wasn't available to them previously. 

    The Union Government has stated the criteria that will be used to determine the 'economically backward' classes of the society. For rural areas families with income (including agricultural income as well as from a profession) below Rs 8 lakh per annum, possessing agricultural land below five acres and a residential house smaller than 1000 square feet will be covered under this. For urban areas, those with residential plot below 100 square yards in a notified municipality or a residential plot below 200 square yards in a non-notified municipal area will be considered for reservation. The states will define their criteria similarly, which will depend also on local factors. The applicability of the reservations is both for jobs in the government and for seats in higher educational institutions i.e. colleges and universities. 

    Some challenges are expected in implementation of this reservation quota. As the amendment is subject to judicial review, the Supreme Court will need to agree to lift the 50% cap on reservations. In such a case, all the states of India can extend the quantum of reservation and the upper castes will stand to lose in state services. If the Supreme Court rejects the idea of breaching the 50% cap, EWS quotas can be provided only by cutting into the SC, ST and OBC quota percentages. which will definitely have social and political implications. If the EWS is treated as a category such as the SC, ST and OBC, a large group of general category candidates will apply for just 10% seats, causing difficulties in implementation.

    Identification of eligible candidates is also likely to pose problems as, if affidavits are required to be filed regarding land holding and annual income, they may need to be verified from government, municipal or gram panchayat records. 

    All central universities currently follow the same reservation policy, i.e. 15 per cent seats for Scheduled Castes, 7.5 per cent for Scheduled Tribes and 27 per cent for those among the Other Backward Classes with annual family income under Rs 8 latch or what is described as the 'non-creamy' layer. If the new 10 per cent quota is implemented, admission into public institutions will most likely be through the same mechanism used for the Other Backward Classes. 

    There are implications for private educational institutions also, particularly those that are government aided. Some of these institutions already have reservations for students from the home state and the new 10% EWS reservation may impact this also. The institutions will necessarily have to redraft their reservation policies accordingly. 

    Earlier, groups belonging to 'socially and educationally backward classes' have benefited from reservation, even though many of these groups could not be actually regarded as 'backward'. Thus, reservations have been usurped by others than the depressed classes. Thus, this landmark decision of the Central Government is a positive move and an attempt to provide reservation to the needy through a legitimate channel. 

    Difficult Words with Meanings :
    • Empowerment strengthening; giving power
    • Concrete real: definite
    • Commitment promise
    • Quotas allocations
    • Capped limited
    • Judicial review examination by a Constitutional court for legality
    • Crying need very great necessity
    • Advancement development
    • Minority run by people from religious minorities for people of their religion
    • Criteria standards
    • Challenges difficulties
    • Implications consequences
    • Usurped taken
    • Depressed weaker
    • Landmark major

    shared by Nisheeta Mirchandani
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    August 07, 2020

    Success Story of IBPS PO IX - Abhisshek Arun

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    As the new notification of IBPS PO X has been released, I felt it necessary to share my success story as IBPS Probationary Officer as I genuinely feel it will inspire a lot of people , if someone like me can back from the dead , anyone can .

    2016 - Happily married and working in a MNC with a good salary package . Sent to offshore for 6 months period. Life could not be any better with career progression and being married to the person whom I had loved for a good 8 years ( studied in same college, worked in same company as well  ) .

    But who would have  known it would my change life forever . Fast forward 6 months , my marriage was in troubled waters and by mid 2017 , I was facing divorce with hefty compensations . This was such a shocking and traumatizing incident in my life it  left me numb , TOTALLY numb. I lost my working abilities , left my project , would spend days as a dead man . This continued for a good 2 months , and I was almost in the dumps when a mail from my brother finally woke me up .

     Although I had seen success as an engineer , my passion and interest always lay in the finance domain - my brother s mail just reminded me that I am good enough and too  good to waste my life like this .

    That one mail rekindled the spirit in me , and when everything looked gloomy , I saw opportunity in that harrowing time  .

    As I was in bench , I started preparing for banking jobs on my own - failed to clear IBPS PO, realized I needed some direction . Joined one institute which helped me in honing my skills - I took up a project with night shifts as it helped me taking the classes at 8 in the morning , I would do my job from 9-4.30 , come back home by 6 and reach classes at 8 , during weekends I would put in a minimum of 14-16 hours as I had little time prepping on a daily basis .

    One friend who stood through these dark times was Gr8ambitionz . The questions , interview experiences and numerous tips and tricks has helped a ton . Hats off to you guys for doing such a great work which not only is going to hep the candidates but also fashion so many stories across generations . Kudos .

    Cleared SBI PO, confidence came back a bit , but failed to cut it in interviews. Cleared IBPS PO, NIACL( answered 175 questions , General Candidate ) - finally interview results came out and it was a huge sigh of relief to get selected . 

    I write about the power of trying, because I want to be okay with failing. I write about generosity because I battle selfishness. I write about joy because I know sorrow. I write about faith because I almost lost mine, and I know what it is to be broken and in need of redemption. I write about gratitude because I am thankful - for all of it.

    Thank you Gr8ambitionz for being such a monumental pillar in the success I have achieved today , no words can express it . Take a bow .

    Regards ,

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    Think Positive and Win Positively

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    "A man is what he thinks about all day long". 
    Ralph Waldo Emerson
    One of the greatest gifts to the man from the nature is his ability to think and this is what makes him different from others. Each individual is unique in his way because of his thinking. An individual's thought process is reflected in his personality which ultimately plays an important role in deciding the course of his life. 

    Optimism or positive thinking is all about being confident about the future or success of something. It is this positive thinking which opens the doors of success for an individual. 

    The person who is confident of achieving his goals will make sure to put in all the hard work in the requisite direction. It becomes difficult for the failures and hurdles to stop an optimistic person to achieve his goal. This is because each failure is a stepping stone of success for him. 

    Although life isn't a bed of roses, there is a way out of every labyrinth and an answer to every enigma. There is no such problem which can't be sorted out. At times, it may happen that a person finds himself stuck in a situation and is unable to figure out how to proceed. In such a situation, he needs to think and analyse carefully in order to find a way out. The journey of life isn't a smooth one. There are a number of speed breakers in the form of obstacles and hurdles at each stage of our life. But it is not that a few selected individuals have to face problems in life; everyone has to face their share of problems. 

    August 05, 2020

    IBPS PO X 2020 : Should I Apply or Not ?

    The much awaited notification from the IBPS for the recruitment of Probationary Officers for the year 2020 (IBPS PO X) has been released. Usually, when the IBPS releases these types of recruitment notifications, we get mails and messages from our readers asking about preparation plan and study materials. But this time our inbox started to get flooded with questions asking "Whether to Apply or not". So we've decided to shed some light on this issue. Of-course, people have some strong reasons to ask this question. They are :
    1. Vacancies : There are very less number of vacancies. To be precise, there are hardly One thousand posts with major banks like Bank of Baroda, Central Bank of India and Indian Overseas Bank reporting Zero vacancies. 
    2. Application Fee : Usually IBPS used to charge Rs. 100/- from reserved and Rs. 600/- from General for Probationary Officers as application fee. But this time the amount got increased to Rs. 175/- for reserved and Rs. 850/- for general. 
    3. Rumors about Privatization of Banks : During the last week of July 2020, a news article has surfaced in famous Indian dailies stating 'the Indian government is planning to overhaul the banking industry and as part of it, the govt is looking to privatize more than half of its state-owned banks to reduce the number to 5.
    These 3 reasons put our future banking aspirants in a dilemma whether to apply for IBPS PO X or not. 

    Well, before going into further details, I want to ask you a simple question. Do we have any other options ? Things were different till February 2020. Now everything got changed. Getting the notification is itself is a big deal. If you really need a job and you have no choice, you have to do what you have to do. You should apply for it even if you don't like the number of vacancies they are going to offer. After all, you only need one job. No matter how many vacancies they have.

    If you closely observe the vacancies of previous IBPS PO notifications, you will realize that the number of vacancies have been gradually decreasing. In earlier notifications (IBPS I, II & III) there were around 20K+ vacancies. For IBPS IV the number became 16k, for IBPS V 12k, later 8k, 4k and for IBPS PO IX there were only 4336 vacancies. So one thing is clear. You can't expect more than 4 thousand vacancies. In coming notifications too the number may reduce further to a 3 number digit. So a good aspirant always tries to grab the opportunity.

    Next reason, High Application Fee. Of-course, increasing 250 rupees all of a sudden is not advisable. But they may have their own reasons to do so. They may need to maintain social distancing while conducting the exam, so need to conduct exams for lesser number of people, which results to more exam centers and more working days. They may need to provide free masks and sanitizers in exam halls. Whatever the reason is, the fee is unavoidable.

    The third reason is the news on Privatization. As of now, it is just a rumor. The government is THINKING (not planning) about this option. So even if it is finalized, it will take at-least 2 more years to do so. By then you will be settled in your dream job comfortably. So it won't make much difference to your professional or personal life. Nobody comes to you and ask you to resign.

    So I strongly advise you to apply [No, IBPS is not giving any money to us for saying this. Trust me ;) ]

    And by the way, better think twice before applying in the following cases.
    • Have you completed at least 50% of the syllabus of IBPS PO X ?
      Try to set your excitement (or nervous butterflies) aside for the moment. Remain calm, and simply look at the facts. How good are you in all the subjects ? Atleast the major 3 for preliminary examination ? (English Language, Quantitative Aptitude and Reasoning Ability). Have you completed 50% of syllabus atleast ? If the answer is “yes,” great! . But if the answer is “no”, then you need to think before applying. 
    • What, if Anything, Is Still Making You Feel Like You should not apply ?
      If you’re staring right at the facts, and you’re still feeling that you shouldn't apply, then better talk to your loved ones (not the guy who sits besides you and always feel jealous of your success). Then decide.
    One more thing. The competition will be very high this time. You really need to work hard. At the end, as I already said, you only need one job, Good Luck :)

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    August 04, 2020

    IBPS PO X Recruitment Notification 2020 Released

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    Finally a Good News guys, the Institute of Banking Personnel Selection (IBPS) has released the Official Notification for the recruitment of Probationary Officers / Management Trainees in various Nationalized Banks for the year 2021-2022. There are 1167 vacancies in total. You can apply online from 5th August 2020 to 26th August 2019. Preliminary Online Exam will be held during the Month of October 2020 (3rd October, 10th October and 11th October 2020). Main Online Exam will be held on 28th November 2020. The application fee for IBPS PO X has been increased from previous years' i.e., Rs. 175/- for SC/ST/PWBD Candidates and Rs. 850/- for General. Check complete details below. All the Best :)

    August 03, 2020

    Essay on Merger of Banks - Is Bigger Always Better ?

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    Merger is a process of bringing two or more separate business entities under common ownership through a series of legal and administrative measures. Bank merger is an event in which previously distinct banks are consolidated into one institution. When a merger occurs, an independent bank loses its charter and becomes a part of an existing bank with one headquarters and is driven by a unified control. Mergers in Indian banking have been initiated through the recommendations of Narasimhan Committee II.

    The issue has been in the news recently as the Union Cabinet approved the merger of Vijaya Bank and Dena Bank with Bank of Baroda (BoB). Following the merger of these state-owned banks, BoB will become the third largest bank in terms of assets in India.

    Post liberalization, there have been several mergers such as merger of New Bank of India with Punjab National Bank, Bharat Overseas Bank with Indian Overseas Bank, Times Bank with HDFC and various subsidiaries of State Bank of India with the parent bank. The characteristics of each of these mergers were different from the others.

    Indian banks are facing tough competition from their international counterparts, as the foreign banks with huge capital base are able to offer loans to borrowers at attractive rates that make the Indian banks vulnerable to economic shock and consequent instability. These issues need to be addressed through strengthening of the capital base of such banks, which is possible only through mergers and acquisitions.

    Merger of banks is one of the solutions for the ills of Indian Public Sector Banks (PSBs). Before further mergers, the government has to work on other issues faced by the PSBs which are responsible for the increasing Non-Performing Assets (NPAs) and inefficiency. Some of these issues are political interference in appointments of higher officials in PSBs, the ever increasing responsibility of PSBs in providing credit facilities to agriculture; capital intensive risky sectors such as steel, cement etc. frequent loan waivers by government, all of which deteriorates the credit culture in India. Other hidden issues such as long gestation period of projects, lack of timely environmental clearances for projects, lack of thorough study of the business before disbursing loans and poor debt recovery architecture In the country also aggravate the problems of PSBs.

    Therefore, government has to resolve these issues to make PSBs financially more efficient because, if a big bank fails after merger then it will be disastrous for the country's economy, just as it happened in the USA at the time of the 2008-09 financial recession.

    To enter the global financial market and to survive in the high-risk field of competition with foreign banking giants, Indian banking industry badly needs consolidation. The most commonly adopted method of consolidation of banks is merger. Merger of two weak banks or merger of a weak bank with a strong bank is said to be the faster and less costly way to improve profitability. Also, it is a better idea to have one big, healthy, strong and productive bank than to have several ailing and laggard banks. One more major motive behind the mergers in banking industry is to achieve economies of scale and scope. As the size increases, the efficiency of the system also increases because the large operations enable the banks to bring down the operative cost substantially, which in turn facilitates the banks to offer better rates to its customers. Along with diversified activities, mergers enable the banks to extend the business to various segments at many locations across the country and the globe. Hence, the risks are spread across various regions and segments, which protect the banks from an adverse business cycle or an unexpected financial crisis.

    Some difficulties are encountered in a merger. For instance, there is confusion and lack of clarity among employees. Despite new positions being created, a considerable number of positions are abolished with the merger, resulting in a number of people becoming jobless. Besides, with staff from all participating banks coming under the same banner, there will be surplus staff at many branches, which will lead to transfers to previously understaffed branches, usually remote locations. This can sometimes trigger widespread discontent.

    The number of bank branches certainly increased after a merger, which makes it difficult for the head office of the merged entity to regulate and monitor all activities. Besides, the different workplace cultures coming into contact are bound to cause some clashes in the beginning before they begin to adapt. Further, bank merger brings the best and the worst of the merged banks together, which means weaknesses of the banks will also initially get into the system before they can be weeded out.

    There is always a risk of isolating the customer base immediately after a merger. First of all, there is the fear about the security of money deposited, especially in a time when cybercrimes are rampant. Secondly, banking policies sometime change, along with technological platforms and that may not go down well with the customer base, especially with long term and elderly customers. Sometimes such customers react emotionally to such changes and banks must be prepared to lose some customers after such a transition.

    The idea of bank mergers has been around since at least 1991, when former Reserve Bank of India (RBI) Governor M Narasimham recommended that the government merge banks into a three-tiered structure, with three large banks with an international presence at the top.

    In 2014, the PJ Nayak panel suggested that the government either merge or privatise state-owned banks. The government hopes that state-owned banks will achieve economies of scale and operational efficiency, while managing risks in a better way after merging. Mission Indradhanush for banks is a seven-pronged plan launched by Government of India to resolve issues faced by Public Sector Banks. Many of the measures taken under this mission were suggested by the PJ Nayak Committee on banking sector reforms.

    Bank mergers and acquisitions are complex procedures with the possibility of extraordinary payoffs. Hence, it is important that the banks and government handle the nitty gritties of this pivotal transformation with care. All the benefits and dangers must be weighed properly for a successful merger or acquisition.

    The merger of State Bank of Saurashtra and State Bank of Indore with State Bank of India had unveiled the merger process among public sector banks and more are following. It is time to look for synergy driven mergers. Banks can reap the benefit of consolidation only when the issues such as redeployment of surplus staff, integration of technology platforms, systems and procedures and cultural issues are addressed suitably.

    Difficult Words with Meanings :

    • Consolidated brought together
    • Charter official document permitting a bank to start business as a bank
    • Liberalisation financial and licensing changes made in India starting in 1991
    • Parent original
    • Addressed solved
    • Ills problems
    • Non-performing assets class of loans or advances that are in default or in arrears
    • Capital intensive requiring a large amount of money
    • Credit culture sum of the policies, practices and experiences in giving credit or loans
    • Gestation time to completion from the start
    • Debt recovery architecture legal process required to recover debts which are unpaid
    • Laggard falling behind others
    • Economies of scale having in costs gained by having a large number of customers
    • Discontent unhappiness
    • Weeded out removed
    • Isolating making unhappy
    • Synergy having similar or same goals

    shared by Nisheeta Mirchandani

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