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December 15, 2017

Essay on NAM (Non Aligned Movement) - History and Evolution

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History and Evolution of Non Aligned Movement

  • The origination of non-aligned movement. 
  • The primary objectives of NAM. 
  • World became 'multipolar' due to it. 
  • Significant transition in world politics. 
  • Relevance of NAM. 
  • Future of NAM for achieving its goal.
The non-aligned movement was formed during the Cold War, largely on the initiative of the then Yugoslavian President Josip Broz Tito. NAM originated as an organisation of the third world countries which did not seek to formally align themselves with either the United States or the Soviet Union but wanted to remain independent or neutral. The United States, West European nations and their allies represented the first world countries. The primary of objectives of the non-aligned countries were to focus on national independence, the sovereignty and territorial integrity of states; opposition to apartheid; non-adherence to multilateral military pacts and the independence of non-aligned countries from great power or block influences and rivalries; the struggle against imperialism in all its forms and manifestations; the struggle against colonialism, neo-colonialism, racism, foreign occupation and domination; disarmament; non-interference in the internal affairs of states and peaceful coexistence among all nations; rejection of the use of threat or use of force in international relations; the strengthening of the United Nations; the democratisation of international relations; socio-economic development and the restructuring of the international economic system; as well as international cooperation on an equal footing.

NAM proved to be a protective and progressive coverage for the newly independent countries, from the clutches of powerful blocks and solely concentrate on its development and stability. But the circumstances that led to the creation of this movement have undergone a sea of change. The world has moved from `uninolar' and 'bipolar' to 'multipolar' regime. Regional cooperation is the new `mantra' for regional development. Trans Pacific Partnership, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, SAARC, ASEAN +6 etc reveal the growth of multipolar world. Decolonialisation has been achieved in many countries that participated in NAM to raise a movement against colonialisation. Moreover end of Cold War, tumbling down of many military blocks, global nuclear non-proliferation regime etc question . the relevance of NAM in 21st century. Countries like India who was founder member of NAM, has readily aligned with USA and signed Civil Nuclear Agreement and transfer and technology in other technological innovations, Similarly there is regular joint military exercise amongst countries where participants are from all the blocks aligned, non-aligned etc. e.g. Malabar US-India Military exercise. 

Many experts believe NAM has become defunct because outdated economic trend and lack of economic pragmatism, lack of promotion of real issues like nuclear non proliferation, child labour, poverty and terrorism. This erodes the credibility of the movement as an instrument to further the political and economic interests of its members. Many non-aligned countries claim that all changes that have taken place are result of policy that NAM countries have followed since their inception. NAM has also issued a declaration that world in transition from diminishing confrontation to increasing cooperation, it will emphasise on issues like eradicating poverty, hunger, malnutrition, and illiteracy. 

Moreover the relevance of NAM becomes significant as neo-colonialism has taken place of colonialism. Many African and Asian countries are still victim of neo-colonialism. If the 20th century would be remembered in history as the century that witnessed national liberation from colonial yoke, the 21st century is fraught with the danger of establishment of neo-colonial rule by same old colonial powers like Britain, France and US. The NATO's unilateral military interventions, gunbout, diplomacy, blackmail and arms twisting policies cannot be stopped unless a powerful movement like NAM stands up to halt it. Ever since its inception, the objective of NAM has been the promotion of peace and complete nuclear disarmament. The movement's future is dependent on its response to the global challenges. NAM has strongly opined that disarmament is important for the survival of humanity. With its diverse membership, consensus-building is no easy task in the NAM. Some members, including India and Pakistan, have been at loggerheads for years. 

The movement has succeeded to create a strong front on the international level and provided a representation for the third world countries in the international organisations. The NAM has to take stronger resolutions and work more vigorously to achieve its goal. Dr Boutros Ghali has aptly remarked," With the non aligned at its heart, the UN can at last serve people of the world as they must be served. Together we can turn 21st century into a time of truly revolutionary change". 

Difficult Words with Meanings :
  • Sovereignty having supreme authority
  • Apartheid any system or practice that separates people according to colour, ethinicity etc
  • Adherence steady devotion, support
  • Unanimity a consensus or individual opinion
  • Bipolar having two poles, opposite extremes
  • Tumbling to fall helplessly down, end over end
  • Defunct no longer existing or Vocob ci functioning
  • Eradicate to remove or destroy utterly; 9. Inception Cord beginning
  • Gunbout the conduct by government officials of negotiations and other relations between nation
  • Disarmament the reduction or limitation of the size, equipment, armament
  • Vigorous strong, active, robust.
shared by Nisheeta Mirchandani
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