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July 21, 2014

Important Details you should know about Internet


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The Internet is an interconnection between several computers of different types belonging to various networks all over the world. It is a network of networks. Millions of people throughout the world use Internet to share information and ideas, to search information on any topic, etc. All these activities are possible because tens of thousands of networks are connected to the internet.

History of Internet

In 1969, the Department of Defense (DOD) of United States of America started a network called ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Administration Network). It was started with one computer in California and three in Utah.

Later, the military allowed universities to join the network for sharing the hardware and software resources. Then it grew bigger and gave birth to the present-day very popular Internet.

A Technical Viewpoint

As, we've already stated above, Internet is a network of tens of thousands of computer networks. Every network and every computer on these networks exchange information according to certain rules called Protocols. Two computers working with different operating systems can communicate because of the same Protocol. Two protocols used for working with the Internet are Internet Protocol (IP) and
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). You will often see these mentioned together as TCP/IP when references are made to the software needed to make an Internet connection.

Each network and computer system on the Internet has an Internet Address called an IP address. The address is used to exchange information, send , or receive e-mail etc.

Not all networks on the Internet have direct connections, but each network is interconnected to one or more other networks. That way, there can be several pathways from one system to another. One of the technical strengths of the Internet is that when some parts of it are unavailable for traffic, messages can be sent to other path.

How Internet Works ?

When information is passed from one computer system to another, it is broken up into pieces called packets using the TCP protocol. Using the IP protocol, a message consisting of not more than 1500 bytes or characters is put into a packet. Each packet has the address of the sender and the destination. These addresses are called IP addresses.

The packets are passed from one network to another until they reach their destination. At the destination the TCP software reassembles the packets into a complete message. If packets are lost or damaged, a request is sent to resend them. It is not necessary for all the packets in a single message to take the same rout through the Internet or for the same message to take the same route each time it is sent.

What is Modem ?

A modem is a computer peripheral that allows you to connect and communicate with other computers via telephone lines.

Internal Modem : An internal modem slips into an expansion slot provided in the computer. The phone-cord is plugged into a jack, accessible through the back of the computer. The internal modem is lees expensive than an external modem.

External Modem : An external modem is placed outside a computer. The modem rests near the telephone that hooks the computer to the outside world.

The modem also enables us to send a fax from our computer to a fax machine. We can also send a fax from our computer to another computer with its help.

Working of the Modem

Ordinary telephone line connections carry analog information. Modem changes the digital data from your computer into analog data, a format that can be carried by telephone lines. In a similar manner, the computer receiving the data converts analog data to digital data through a modem. The process of converting a digital signal to analog signal is called modulation and converting an analog signal to digital signal is called demodulation.

Integrated Service Digital Network (ISDN) is a line by which data is transmitted over digital telephone lines. ISDN is two to four times quicker than the fastest modems. Use of ISDN lines on the Internet's World Wide Web helps transmit or receive text, graphics, sound, and video. Many telephone companies offer these ISDN lines.

Requirements to Make your Computer a part of the Internet
  1. Internet connection 
  2. Modem
  3. Telephone Line
  4. Program which controls the communication of data over the Hardware Component

ISP (Internet Service Provider)

Internet connections are provided by Internet Service Providers who install a main server and through the server they give connections to users. Server is a computer with high storage capacity and memory. It is in turn connected to other servers installed at different places in the world through satellites. Connections issued through the server are allotted private place on the servers in order to store e-mails for the connected user.

Note : Internet Service Providers give us the facility  to gain access to the Internet against a fee.

That's all for now friends. In our next post we shall discuss some important internet related terminology. Happy Reading :)

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