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June 20, 2016

Reasoning : Statement and Conclusions Problems with Shortcut Methods - Introduction

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In Statement and Conclusions, you are required to approach the questions for solutions from different angle. This approach basically emphasizes the need of being more systematic and logical in drawing inferences.

Unlike Statement and Assumption topic which you already known, here statement is followed by conclusions instead of assumptions. The questions of this type are designed to test your ability to interpret a statement. Therefore, consequent effect of a statement has to be analyzed before reaching the correct conclusion.

Now let's have a look at some examples, it will enable you to understand the logical approach required to draw valid conclusions.

Direction : In each of the following questions, a statement is followed by two conclusions 1st and 2nd. Give your answer as :
  • a. If only conclusion 1 follows, 
  • b. If only conclusion 2 follows,
  • c. If either 1 or 2 follows,
  • d. If neither 1 nor 2 follows, 
  • e. if both 1 and 2 follow.
Ex. 1 :

Statement : Parents are prepared to pay any price for an elite education of their children.

Conclusions :
  1. All parents these days are very well off.
  2. Parents have an obsessive passion for perfect development of their children through god schooling. 
Solution :
It may be concluded form the statement that since parents want a perfect development of their children through good schooling, therefore, they are prepared to pay any price for a good education, but the statement does not give sense of the parents being very well off (means wealthy).  Hence, only conclusion 2 follows. Therefore the correct answer is (b).

Ex. 2 :

Statement : Interview panel may select a student who is neither possessing the abilities of desired level nor any value and assumptions.

Conclusions :
  1. Inclusion of experts in interview panel does not ensure that the selection will be made properly.
  2. Interview procedure of admission has some limitations. 
Solution :
The statement clearly means that inclusion of experts does not ensure proper selection. It also indicates limitation of interview procedure for admission. Hence, both the conclusions follow. Therefore, the correct answer is (e).

Ex. 3 :

Statement : The constitutional amendment carried out just last month prohibits the employment of child labour in any organization.

Conclusions :
  1. The employees must now abide by this amendment to the constitution. 
  2. Children below 14 years of age will now be engaged in acquiring education.
Solution :
It is clearly deduced form the statement that consequent upon the amendment prohibiting the child labour, the employer must abide by the amendment. But it is not mentioned that the amendment gives any provision for acquiring education. Hence, only conclusion 1 follows. Therefore, the correct answer is (a).

Ex. 4 :

Statement : In India, emphasis should be given more to agriculture engineering and technology rather than on basic pure science. 

Conclusions :
  1. India has achieved sufficient development in the field of basic and pure science. 
  2. In the past, the production sector of economy was neglected. 
Solution :
The extent of the development in the field of basic and pure science can't be ascertained from the statement. Similarly, the production sector of economy was neglected in the past can't be concluded. Hence, none of the conclusions follows the statement. Therefore, the correct answer is (d).

Ex. 5 :

Statement : Any young man, who makes dowry as a condition for marriage, discredits himself and dishonors womanhood.

Conclusions :
  1. Those who take dowry in marriage should be condemned by society.
  2. Those who don't take dowry in marriage, respect womanhood.
Solution :
Clearly, the statement declares dowry as an evil practice and reflects its demerits. Thus, conclusion 1 follows. Also, it is given that those who take dowry, dishonour womanhood. This implies that those who don't take dowry respect womanhood. So, conclusion 2 follows. Hence, the correct answer is (e). 
That's all for now guys. I will post some exercises with explanations on this topic soon. Happy Reading :)

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