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June 28, 2016

English Grammar for Competitive Exams in 60 Days - Lesson 4

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Friends, this is the 4th Lesson of our English Grammar Lesson series for Competitive Exams. You can refer to our previous lessons from below links.

The Structure of a Simple Sentence

The Subject and the Predicate

When we make a Sentence, (1) we name some person or thing; and (2) say some thing about that person or thing. Hence, the PRINCIPAL parts of a sentence are two. They are (1) the Subject and (2) the Predicate.
  1. The Subject :
    • The part of the sentence which names the person or thing we are speaking about is called the Subject. 
    • E.g :  Birds fly. (Birds - Subject)
  2. The Predicate :
    • The part of the sentence which tells something about the Subject is called the Predicate. 
    • E.g : Birds fly. (Fly - Predicate)
Exercise - 8
Divide each of the following sentences into the Subject and the Predicate
  1. The earth revolves round the sun.
  2. Bad habits grow unconsciously. 
  3. That he will succeed is certain.
  4. Nature is the best physician.
  5. Borrowed garments never fit well.
  6. New brooms sweep clean. 
  7. Barking dogs seldom bite. 
  8. Ravi's father is a doctor. 
  9. We should profit by experience. 
  10. A guilty conscience needs no excuse. 
(Answers will be disclosed in next Lesson)

    The Subject :

    Subject Word or Simple Subject:

    The Subject may consists of one word or several words. When the Subject consists of several words, the chief word in the Complete Subject is called the Subject Word or Simple Subject. Confused ? Let's try to understand this with an example.
    E.g :
       The boy who is in the corner is his brother.
       In this sentence "the boy who is in the corner" is the Subject.
       and the "boy" is the Subject word.

    Attribute or Enlargement 
    An Adjective or an Adjective equivalent that qualifies the Subject Word in a Complete Subject is called an Attribute or Enlargement.
    E.g :
       The boy who is in the corner is his brother.
       In this sentence "the" and "who is in the corner" which qualify the Subject Word are called the Attributes or Enlargements or Adjuncts. 

    Exercise 9
    In the following sentences pick out the Complete Subject, then separate the Subject Word and its Attributes.
    1. A burnt child dreads fire. 
    2. Barking dogs seldom bite. 
    3. Birds of a feather flock together. 
    4. The boy, anxious to learn, worked hard. 
    5. The man carrying a hoe is a gardener. 
    6. The days of our youth are the days of our glory. 
    7. A house divided against itself cannot stand. 
    8. Ill habits gather by unseen degrees. 
    9. One man's meat is another man's poison. 
    10. His bark is worse than his bite. 
    (Answers will be disclosed in next Lesson)

      The Predicate

      Predicate Word :

      The Predicate may consist of one word or several words. When the Predicate consists of only one word, it is always a Verb. When the Predicate consists of several words, the essential word in the Predicate is a Verb. It is called the Predicate Word.
      E.g :
      1. Birds fly.
          In this sentence "fly" is the Predicate.
      2. The flames spread everywhere.
          In this sentence "spread everywhere" is Complete Predicate.
          "Spread" is the Predicate Word, Verb.

      Adverbial qualification or extension :
      An adverb or an Adverb-equivalent that qualifies a Verb in the Predicate is called its Extension or Adverbial Qualification or Adverbial Adjunct.
      E.g: The flames spread every where.
      In this sentence, "spread every where" is the Complete Predicate "spread" is the verb, "every where" is the extension.

      Exercise - 10
      In the following sentences pick out the Predicate, then separate the Verb and its Adverbial Qualification.
      1. He spoke distinctly. 
      2. This book is printed in clear type. 
      3. I recognized your voice at once. 
      4. He did his work efficiently. 
      5. They went home.
      6. He gets his living by painting. 
      7. He turned to go.
      8. I called them one by one. 
      9. He made his money by trade. 
      10. Spring advancing, the swallows disappear. 
      (Answers will be disclosed in next Lesson)

      The Object :

      A noun or a Noun Equivalent which refers to the person or thing affected by the action of a Verb is called the Object.
      E.g : Birds build nests.
              In the sentence "nests" is the Object.

      Direct Object and Indirect Object :

      When the verb in the Predicate is a Transitive Verb that takes two objects - a Direct Object and Indirect Object, the Object that refers to the person is called the Indirect Object and the Object that refers to the thing is called the Direct Object.
      E.g :
      Rama gave me a pen.
      In this sentence "Rama" is the Subject.
      "Gave me a pen" is the Predicate.
      "Gave" is the Verb.
      "Pen" is the Direct Object.
      "Me" is the Indirect Object.

      Exercise 11
      In the following sentences, pick out the Complete Object then separate the Object Word from its Attributes (if any)
      1. He enjoys his master's confidence. 
      2. I recognized your voice at once. 
      3. He shot a big panther. 
      4. I had a quiet holiday. 
      5. He adopted his younger brother's son. 
      6. I met Mr. Ravi, an actor. 
      7. He rocked the baby to sleep. 
      8. The foolish crow tried to sing. 
      9. We saw a man, bent down with age. 
      10. He has much work to do. 
      (Answers will be disclosed in next Lesson)

      The Complement :

      Subjective Complement :

      When the Verb in the Predicate is an Intransitive Verb of Incomplete Predication a word or a group of words is required to complete the Predicate. It is called the Complement. 
      The Complement of an Intransitive Verb describes the Subject. Hence it is called a Subjective Complement.
      E.g:  The baby seems happy.
      In this sentence "happy" is called "Subjective Complement".

      Objective Complement :

      When the verb in the Predicate is a Transitive Verb or Incomplete Predication, it requires a Complement in addition to the Object to complete the Predicate. 
      The Complement of a Transitive Verb refers to the Object. Hence it is called the Objective Complement. 
      E.g: They elected him president
              In this sentence "they" is the subject "elected him president" is a Predicate: "elected" is a Verb and "him" is the Object. "President" which refers to the Object "him" is called the "Objective Complement".
      E.g:  
      They made him captain
      He kept us waiting.
      His parents named him Hari.
      In the above sentences "captain", "waiting", "Hari" are Objective Complements. 

      Exercise - 12
      Pick out the Subjective Complement in each of the following sentences :
      1. He became a doctor. 
      2. The earth is round. 
      3. Roses smell sweet. 
      4. The old man is dead. 
      5. The weather is cold.
      6. She became unconscious. 
      7. The children look healthy. 
      8. The cup is full to the brim.
      9. This morning she seemed in good spirits. 
      10. Ugly rumors are about.  
      (Answers will be disclosed in next Lesson)
        Exercise - 13
        In the following sentences, pick out the Objective Complements
        1. They made him captain 
        2. He kept us waiting. 
        3. The jury found him guilty. 
        4. His parents named him Ravi.
        5. Nothing will make him repent. 
        6. His words filled them with terror. 
        7. He saw the storm approaching. 
        8. They kept us in suspense. 
        9. I consider the man trustworthy. 
        10. This will make you happy. 
        (Answers will be disclosed in next Lesson)

        That's all for now friends. In our next lesson we shall discuss the 1. Kinds of Nouns and 2. Nouns - Gender. Happy Reading :)

          Answers for Lesson 3

          Answers to Exercise 6

          1. Exclamatory sentence. 
          2. Imperative sentence. 
          3. Interrogative sentence. 
          4. Interrogative sentence. .
          5. Imperative sentence. 
          6. Imperative sentence. 
          7. Imperative sentence. 
          8. Assertive sentence. 
          9. Exclamatory sentence.
          10. Exclamatory sentence. 

          Answers to Exercise 7

          1. Negative
          2. Affirmative
          3. Negative
          4. Affirmative
          5. Negative
          6. Negative
          7. Affirmative 
          8. Negative 
          9. Negative
          10. Affirmative
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