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June 26, 2016

English Grammar for Competitive Exams in 60 Days - Lesson 2

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Friends, in yesterday's Lesson 1, we have discussed about the Alphabet, Vowels & Consonants, Syllables & Words, and Parts of Speech. In today's Lesson 2, we are going to discuss the following topics.
  1. Phrases
  2. Kinds of Phrases
  3. Clauses
  4. Kinds of Clauses

Phrases

The Phrase :
We can simply say that "a group of words which makes sense but not a complete sense" is called a Phrase.  Consider the group of words ‘on a wall’. It makes sense, but not complete sense. So we can call it as a phrase.


Important Point to Note : A phrase is a group of related words that does not contain a subject and a verb.
 
E.g

  • The sun rises in the east  (in the east - is a phrase)
  • Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall (on a wall - is a phrase)

Kinds of Phrases

Phrases are of three kinds, They are :
  1. Noun Phrase
  2. Adjective Phrase
  3. Adverb Phrase
1. Noun Phrase :
A phrase that does the work of a noun is called the Noun Phrase.
E.g :
  • He wants something. (Something - Noun)
  • He wants to go home (to go home - Noun Phrase)
  • Early to bed is a good maxim (Early to bed - Noun Phrase)
  • We enjoy playing cricket (playing cricket - Noun phrase)
2. Adjective Phrase :
A phrase that does the work of an Adjective is called an Adjective Phrase.
E.g :
  • He was a wealthy man (Adjective)
    • He was a man of great wealth (Adjective phrase)
  • I like to see a smiling face (Adjective)
    • I like to see a face with a smile on it (Adjective phrase)
3. Adverb Phrase :
A phrase that does the work of an Adverb is called an Adverb Phrase.
E.g
  • Rama ran quickly (Adverb)
    • Rama ran with a great speed (Adverb Phrase)
  • He goes to temple in the evening (Adverb Phrase)
  • He acted in a funny way. (Adverb Phrase)

Exercise - 2

Pick out the phrases in the following sentences and say whether they are Noun Phrases, Adjective Phrases or Adverb Phrases. 
  1. He speaks like a born orator.
  2. He failed in spite of his best efforts.
  3. He won the prize by means of trickery.
  4. Do not talk like that. 
  5. I do not know what to do.
  6. I do not understand how to solve this problem.
  7. He succeeded in the long run.
  8. Birds of the same feather flock together. 
  9. He is a man of means. 
  10. I have forgotten how to play this game. 
(Answers will be disclosed in next Lesson)

The Clause :

Have a look at the following sentences :
  • Miss India Aditi Arya wore a diamond crown
  • Miss India Aditi Arya wore a crown which is made of diamonds
We know that the group of words ‘a diamond crown’ is a phrase. But the group of words ‘which is made of diamonds’ is not a phrase. It has a subject (which) and a predicate (is made fo diamonds). Such a group of words which forms part of a larger sentence, and contains a subject and a predicate is called a Clause.  

Important Points to note : 
  • A group of words which forms part of a sentence and contains a subject and a Predicate is called a Clause.
  • A clause is defined as a group of related words that contains a subject and predicate (verb).
E.g :
  • People who pay their debts are trusted (Clause)
  • We can not start while it is raining. (Clasue)
  • I think that you have made a mistake. (Clause)

Kinds of Clauses :

Clauses are of three kinds. They are :
  1. Noun Clause.
  2. Adjective Clause.
  3. Adverb Clause.
1. Noun Clause :
A clause that does the work of a Noun is called a Noun clause.
E.g :
  • I expect a prize (Noun)
  • I expect to get a prize (Noun phrase)
  • I expect that I shall get a prize (Noun clause)
  • No one knows who he is (Noun clause)
  • I don't know what he will do (Noun clause).
2. Adjective Clause :
A Clause that does the work of an Adjective is called an Adjective Clause.
E.g :
  • He has a golden ring. (Adjective)
  • He has a ring made of gold (Adjective Phrase)
  • He has a ring which is made of gold. (Adjective Clause)
3. Adverb Clause :
A clause that does the work of an Adverb is called an Adverb Clause.
E.g :
  • You may sit here (Adverb)
  • You may sit in that place (Adverb Phrase)
  • You may sit where ever you like (Adverb Clause)
  • If you eat too much, you will be ill. (Adverb Clause).
  • I forgive you since you repent. (Adverb Clause)

Exercise 3

Pick out the clauses in the following sentences and say whether they are Noun Clauses, Adjective Clauses or Adverb Clauses.
  1. I know where I could find him.
  2. I went to the place where I could find him.
  3. I went where I could find him.
  4. If you eat too much, you will be ill.
  5. I do it because I choose it.
  6. The house that I life in belongs to my father. 
  7. He died in the village where he was born. 
  8. I often wonder how you are getting on.
  9. He replied that he would come.
  10. Where we were to lodge that night was the problem.
(Answers will be disclosed in next Lesson) 

Main Clause and Subordinate Clause :

1. Main Clause :
  • A clause which stands by itself and makes good sense is called the Main Clause or Principal Clause.
2. Subordinate Clause / Dependent Clause:
  • A clause which cannot stand by itself and make good sense is called Dependent or Subordinate clause.
E.g :
  • They rested when evening came.
In the above sentence, two clauses are there.
  1. They rested. (Main Clause)
  2. When evening came. (Subordinate Clause).
A dependent clause cannot stand on its own. It needs an independent clause to complete a sentence. Dependent clauses often begin with such words as although, since, if, when, and because.

Important Points to Note :
  • The basic unit of English grammar is the clause
  • Clauses are made up of phrases
  • We can join two or more clauses together to make sentences.
    • Examples:
      • Although she is hungry …
      • Whoever is hungry …
      • Because I am feeling well …  

Exercise - 4

Say whether the underlined groups or words in the following sentences are Phrases or Clauses.
  1. A thing of beauty is a joy for ever. 
  2. This is a matter of no importance
  3. I don't know how to play this game
  4. I don't see how you can get out of this mess.
  5. I thought that the boy was innocent
  6. A stitch in time saves nine. 
  7. Birds of the same feather flock together. 
  8. God helps those who help themselves.
  9. A plane, which flies faster than sound, is called supersonic plane.
  10. I want to know how far it is from here.   
(Answers will be disclosed in next Lesson) 

Exercise - 5

Divide the following sentences into Main Clauses and Subordinate Clauses. 
  1. He thought that it would be a fine day.
  2. I don't know what he wants.  
  3. I remember the house where I was born. 
  4. They never fail who die in a great cause. 
  5. You will pass if you work hard. 
  6. I forgive you since you repent. 
  7. I shall remain where I am. 
  8. When I was younger I thought so.
  9. We shall wait here until you come.
  10. If I make a promise I shall keep it. 
(Answers will be disclosed in next Lesson)  

Answers for Exercise 1 (Lesson 1)

  1. Noun
  2. Adjective
  3. Adverb
  4. Preposition
  5. Conjunction
  6. Pronoun
  7. Interjection
  8. Verb
  9. Verb
  10. Noun
That's all for today friends. In our Lesson, we shall discuss about the Sentence and Kinds of Sentences. Happy Reading :)

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