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August 31, 2017

Essays for IBPS PO VII : Human Trafficking - Modern Day Slavery

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Human Trafficking - Modern Day Slavery

  • Human trafficking, a violation of human rights. 
  • Human trafficking extends world wide. 
  • Various types of human trafficking.
  • Factors responsible for trafficking. 
  • The consequences of trafficking.
  • Initiatives taken by the united Nations. 
  • Steps taken by the Government of India.
Human trafficking is one of the most heinous forms of organised crime and violation of human rights all over the world. There is a strong concern at the upward trend and multidimensional nature of this criminal phenomenon which victimises men, women and children. Traffickers take into account neither borders, laws nor national prejudices.
There objective is profit and they traffic in human beings. Whether through abduction or deception, they deceive desperate and ignorant people whose dream of being freed from poverty is transformed into the worst of nightmares.

Trafficking assaults human dignity flagrantly violates Fundamental Rights erodes conscience. Thus, fomenting corruption, undermines international security and development and creates vast revenues for organised crime. The global economic crisis has resulted in a spike in this phenomenon in the form of forced labour where by the victim himself 'accepts' his situation due to lack of substantial choices and ways out of poverty.
`A Global Report on Trafficking in Persons' by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) offers the first global assessment of the scope of human trafficking. It is based on data gathered from 155 countries. According to the report, the most common form of human trafficking is sexual exploitation (80%). The victims of sexual exploitation are predominantly women and girls. 

The second most common form of human trafficking is forced labour (18%), although this may be a misrepresentation because forced labour is less frequently detected and reported than trafficking for sexual exploitation. World wide almost 20% of all trafficking victims are children. However, in some parts of Mekong region and Africa, children are the majority (100%). The Bangladesh takes the first spot on the list of 155 countries with the highest rates of human trafficking in the world. Ghana in Africa has become a point of destination for a lot of trafficking in children who are forced to work as labourers in the mines specially gold mines. In Uganda, children are either trafficked for forced labour or they are killed for their organs. Nepal is considered to be the busiest route in human trafficking where trafficking of women takes place from largely.

Some other countries like Sri Lanka, Pakistan and Haiti where forced labour and girl prostitution is on high rate. Women in Iraq are also vulnerable to crimes such as sexual assault and human Trafficking. Women are sold to Saudi Arabia.

It is important to understand the various types of human trafficking prevailing in the world. These are 
  • Trafficking in children involves the recruitment, transfer, transportation of receipt of children for the purpose of exploitation.
  • Trafficking in women for sexual exploitation affects every region in the world. Victims are often provided with false promises of decent employment and are transported to the other country to be forced into sexual slavery. 
  • A forced marriage qualifies as a form of human trafficking if a woman is sent abroad, forced into the marriage and then repeatedly compelled to engage in sexual conduct. 
  • Trafficking in humans for the purpose of using their organs particulars kidneys, is a rapidly growing field of criminal activity. 
In poorer regions of the world where education and employment opportunities are limited, the most vulnerable in society—runaways, refugees are the most common victims. Trafficking in children often involves exploitation of the parents extreme poverty. The consequences of human trafficking are most directly felt by those who are its victims. Trafficking usually involves prolonged and repeated trauma. The victims are at great risk of HIV infection.

On the other hand, there are economic consequences of human trafficking. The costs of crime of trafficking in persons incorporates many elements, including the value of all resources devoted to its prevention, the treatment and support of victims and the prosecution and apprehension of offenders. According to estimates from the International Labour Organisation (ILO), every year the human trafficking industry generates 32 billion USD. The victims of human trafficking can be seen more in a country where there is a huge population, but a low rate of literacy and employment opportunity.
Human Trafficking has expanded to almost every state in India, specially in the state of Jharkhand, human trafficking is wide-spread. Some South states like Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka also lead in human trafficking. Delhi is the hotspot for illegal trade of young girls for domestic labour, forced marriage and prostitution. Children especially young girls and women mostly from North-East are taken from their homes and sold in faraway states of India for sexual exploitation and to work as bonded labour. Girls are forced to marry also in some states where female to male sex ratio is highly imbalanced.

Initiatives have been taken worldwide to deal with the severe issue of human trafficking. These includes 
  • UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) assisted many NGOs in their fight against human trafficking. 
  • The United Nations Global Initiative to Fight Human Trafficking (UNGIHT) was conceived to promote the global fight against this crime. 
  • United Nations Voluntary Trust Fund for Victims of Trafficking in Persons, 2010, provide humanitarian, legal and financial aid to victims of human trafficking. 
Efforts have been taken by the Government of India to combat the- issue of human trafficking. It penalises trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation through the Immoral Trafficking Prevention Act (CEPA), 1986 which prescribes penalty ranging from seven years to life imprisonment.

India also prohibits bonded and forced labour through the Bonded Labour Abolition Act, the Child Labour Act and the Juvenile Justice Act. Indian authorities also use Sections 366(A) and 372 of the Indian Penal Code prohibiting kidnapping and selling minors into prostitution respectively. An anti-trafficking nodal cell has been set-up under the Ministry of Home Affairs. The Home Ministry has also launched a web portal on anti-human trafficking and the Ministry of Women and Child Development is implementing thjawala', a programme that focuses on rescue, rehabilitation and repatriation of victims. Even the Indian Constitution bans the traffic in persons. Article 23, in the Fundamental Rights Section of the Constitution, prohibits "Traffic in human beings and other similar forms of forced labour". 

Even though a large number of efforts are being made in India as well as in the world against this crime, it is still prevailing in the society to a large extent. More efforts are needed to drive away this evil from the society at large. Some stringent anti-trafficking laws and their right implementation is required. People should be educated on human trafficking issues and help the survivors to find security and happiness. 

Difficult Words with Meanings :
  • Trafficking - deal or trade in something illegal
  • Heinous - disgraceful, horrifying
  • Multidimensional - having many aspects or dimensions
  • Prejudices - preconceived opinion
  • Assault - make a physical attack on
  • Flagrantly - in an offensive way
  • Fomenting - instigate or stir up;
  • Array - an impressive display
  • Trauma - a deeply disturbing experience
  • Apprehension - anxiety, uneasiness
  • Protocol  - the official procedure
  • Repatriation - process of returning a person to his or her place of origin
  • Stringent - very strict or rigid.
shared by Nisheeta Mirchandani
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