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August 19, 2014

Types of Planning and India's Vision 2020 of Planning Commission


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Friends, in our previous posts, we have discussed about the Introduction of Planning and the Strategies of Planning in India. Today we shall discuss about the Types of Planning. Happy reading :)

Types of Planning

  • Planning by Direction 
    • It is an integral part of a socialist society and entails absence of Laissez faire (an economic environment in which transactions between private parties are free from intrusive government restrictions, tariffs, and subsidies, with only enough regulations to protect property rights). 
  • Planning by Inducement 
    • It is a democratic planning and planning is through manipulating the market.
    • It provides for freedom of enterprise, freedom of consumption and freedom of production subject to state control and regulation.
  • Financial Planning
    • It is a technique of planning, in which resources are allocated in terms of money. It is a long-term planning.
  • Physical Planning
    • It refers to the allocation of resources in terms of men, material and machinery.
  • Perspective Planning
    • It refers to long-term planning, in which long range targets are set in advance for a period of 15, 20 or 25 years. Sixth Plan (1978-83) by Janata Government was such plan.
  • Indicative Planning
    • A French System of Planning based on decentralization principle.
    • In this, state plays a facilitating role and allows flexibility so as to enable private sector play a greater role. 
    • In India, since Eighth Plan, indicative planning is being followed.  
  • Imperative Planning
    • There is no consumer sovereignty. 
    • All economic activities and resources of the economy operate under the overall direction of the state.
  • Rolling Plan
    • In Rolling Plan, every year three new plans, viz, annual, fixed and perspective plan made and acted upon.
  • Core Plan 
    • As per this concept, the Planning Commission asks the states to submit their projected revenue estimates. On the basis of these estimates, Planning Commission determines the expenditure heads for state annual plans. This helps in keeping the paln target to realistic limits. 

India Vision 2020 of Planning Commission

The compounded effect of achieving the targeted annual GDP growth rate of 8.5% to 9% over the next 20 years would result in a quadrupling of the real per capital income and almost eliminating the percentage of Indians living below the poverty line. This will raise India's rank from around 11th today to 4th from the top in 2020 among 207 countries given in the World Development Report n terms of GDP.

Further, in terms of per capita GDP measured in ppp India's rank will raise by a minimum of 53 ranks from the present 153 to 100. This will mean, India will move from a low income country to an upper middle income country. This is a very real possibility for us to seize upon and realize.

Total population of India will exceed 1.3 billion in 2020. A marked slow down in birth rates will leave the under 15 population at roughly the same size as it is today (i.e., increase by 0.2% per annum). This means that the pressure for expansion of the educational system will come only from increasing enrollment and efforts to reduce drop out rates.  

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  1. vry useful information thnks.....plz upload english practice set for clrk nd po


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