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August 13, 2014

Reading Comprehension Exercise with Explanations


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Friends, in our previous post, we have discussed two useful methods and tips to solve Reading Comprehension Questions of Competitive Exams. Today we shall apply those methods in an example passage. Please read those tips HERE before taking the following exercise. Happy Reading :)

Read the below passage carefully and answer the questions given below it.

The news that the Indian railways are going to incur shortfall of 1,000 crore in their resources generation-and will, therefore, have to seek budgetary support to that extent - will not surprise many. That's a scenario that has been played out for years now, and the outcome too has been predictable-with the railway budget doing its duty by doling out public money. But it's time to look at the problem differently, in view of the current concerns of government in economizing its charity and the feeling that the railways have to stand on their own legs.

The railways have, over the last few months, continued to experience shortfall of Rs. 85 crore per month, a feature that could add to their woes if it continues. Fall in expected goods traffic, in the rate per tonne and also a dip in passenger traffic have contributed to the shortfall. All this may not be new concerns for the railways; the relevant point, however, is how the system and the government hope to takle it.

Clearly, budgetary support should be considered only in the last instance, after various measures to both reduce expenditure and raise resources have been tried out. Consider subsidies on passenger traffic-the expenditure which really digs into the government's coffers. In fact, passenger traffic subsidy accounted for nearly 90% of the railway's losses, with frighten traffic subsidies taking up the rest.

Freight in traffic subsidy cuts should prove more easy if this year's budget exercise is any indication. Prices did not rise, there was little protest and now the railways ought to be emboldened to do more. Reduction in passenger subsidies is more tricky given the dependence of such a large population, mostly poor, on the system and most governments have been reluctant to do much. In fact, passenger rates have been hiked very few times and that too only in recent years. One area where the railways could do a lot more pruning is in shutting uneconomic branch lines. To its credit however, the railways have been looking around for sources, of funds other than the budget.
  1. Which of the following has the SAME meaning as phrase 'played out' as it has been used in the passage ?
    1. enacted
    2. repeated
    3. dramatized
    4. done
    5. predicted
  2. Which of the following is FALSE regarding the railway operation ?
    1. reduction in goods traffic is not new phenomenon
    2. passenger traffic has shown an increase in recent years
    3. rates / tonne of goods carried has come down
    4. railways are aware of the problem of reduction
    5. none of these
  3. How does the cut in freight traffic affect the shortfall ?
    1. By increasing the income
    2. By reducing the expense
    3. Simultaneously increasing the income and reducing expense
    4. By reducing dependence on the central government
    5. None of these 
  4. Which of the following is CORRECT regarding the shortfall in the railways resource generation ?
    1. It was higher than earlier years
    2. It is happening for the first time
    3. It was anticipated by most people
    4. This is largest shortfall ever to happen
    5. None of these

Answers :

  1. Option 2 (Information & Inference work together here)
  2. Option 2 (It can be located by eliminating the alternatives one after another on the basis of the information given in the passage)
  3. Option 5 (The process of elimination will help us find this)
  4. Option 3 (The answer is located by information and may be confirmed by the process of elimination)

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  2. Excellent paragraph. Its really helpful. Thank you so much.

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  5. please provide last ibps po exam in pdf.......please
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