Below Poverty Line (BPL) : According to the "Task Force on projection of minimum needs and effective consumption demand" appointed by the Planning Commission, a person is BPL if his daily consumption of calories is less than 2400 in Rural Areas and 2100 calories in Urban areas.
- About 22% of total population is BPL in 2004-05 as per NSSOs survey.
- 10th plan target of reduction in poverty ratio to 19.3% by 2007 and 11th plan target is 15% by 2012.
- Poverty eradication is the explicit objective of 5th plan. Dandekar & Rath are the 1st to use energy requirements i.e., calorie intakes as a measure of poverty line. 8th Plan took Rs. 11,000 p.a. as poverty line for 5 member family in rural; for urban, Rs 12,000 p.a.
Poverty Eradication Programmes :
- Indira Awaas Yojana (IAY) (1st Jan 1986) : Construction of houses for the poor free of cost. Now part of Bharat Nirman.
- Swarna Jayanthi Gram Swarojgar Yojana (April 99) : IRDP, MWS, TRYSEM , GKY, DWAKRA, SITRA. These 6 programmes were merged to become this scheme.
- Sampoorna Grameena Rojgar Yojana : Emplt Assurance Scheme and Jawahar Gram Samviddhi Yojana were merged to become this scheme.
- Aims : Providing wage - emplt in rural areas, food security.
- "National Food for Work Programme" (Nov 2004) : This is for wage-emplt and food security to rural poor.
- National Rural Employment Guarantee Programme : NREP and the above 2 programmes i.e., (Sampoorna Grameena Rojgar Yojana and National Food for Work Programme" were merged to become this programme.
- 100 Day's guaranteed work in an year.
- Rs 100/- wage per day per person.
- Unskilled manual work in rural areas was launched on 2nd Feb. 2006 at Badlapalli, Ananthapur Dist (Andhra Pradesh) by the P.M. Extended to whole of India from 01-04-08. Budget allotment for 09-10 is Rs 39,100 Cr.
- Swarna Jayanti Shahari Rojgar Yojana (Dec 1997) : Nehru Rojgar Youjana, Urban Basic Services Programme and PM's integrated Urban Poverty Eradication Programme were merged to become this programme.
- This is for self-emplt for Urban Unemployed.
- DPAP : Drought Prone Area Programme was launched in 1973-74.
- Desert Devt. Programme : Launched in 1977-78.
- Integrated Wasteland Programme : Launched in 1989-90.
- Valmiki Ambedkar Awas Youjana (Dec 2001) : Construction of dwelling Units for the slum dwellers and community Toilets.
- It is merged in Integrated Housing & Slum Development Programme on 3rd Dec 2005.
- Antyodaya Anna Yojana (25th December 2000) : For the "Poorest of the Poor."
- 30 Kg of Rice / Wheat per month per family from Jan 2006.
- 25% of BPL house holds i.e., 2.5 Cr households are covered. Rice @ Rs. 3 per kg and wheat Rs. 2 per Kg.
- Under this, the Govt provides guarantee by law to provide 25 kg of rice / wheat @ Rs. 3 per kg to 6.52 Cr. BPL households.
- The current poverty estimate is 27.5% of population.
- PM Gram Sadak Yojana : Launched in 25-12-2000.
- 100% Centrally Sponsored.
- To provide all-weather road connectivity to all habitations by 10th plan end.
- 2009-10 allocation : Rs 12,000 Cr.
- Annapurna Anna Yojana (2nd October 2000) : For Seniur citizens of more than 65 years, not covered by National old-age pension scheme.
- Food grains 10 kg per month free of cost.
- 100 % centrally sponsored.
- PM's Adarsha Gram Yojana (2009-10) : Rs. 100 Cr for 1000 villiages (SC Population more than 50%).
Some More Important Points :
- "Rajiv Awaas Yojana" is launched to provide affordable houses to slum dwellers and the Urban poor.
- "Indira Awaas Yojana" is launched to provide housing to Rural Poor.
- The concept of "P-Index was coindec by Amarthya Sen.
- India's per capita food consumption fell to 155 Kg/Year.
- As per planning commission estimate BPL for 2007 : 19.34%
- World Bank's Poverty Line : $ 1.25 per person per day; Asian Devt. Bank's new measure of Poverty : $ 1.35.
- Flagship Schemes of UPA Govt :
- Sarva Siksha Abhiyan
- Midday Meals Scheme
- National Rural Health Mission.
- Government of India appointed Task Forces under Nandan Nilekani (Chairman, UIIDAI) to work out mechanism to provide direct subsidies on keroscene, LPG and Fertiliser for the Poor.
Thats all for now Friends.. Happy Reading :)