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September 07, 2017

Essays for IBPS PO VII : Unemployment Problem in India - Govt Initiatives to Tackle it

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The Unemployment Problem in India

Overview
  • What is unemployment ?
  • Census Report 2011. 
  • Different types of unemployment. 
  • Factors responsible for the unemployment. 
  • It has adverse effects on economy and society. 
  • Government should take necessary steps.
Our country is said to be progressing by leaps and bounds in the matter of economy. But this progress is so lopsided that the net result has been the sharp increase in the number of unemployed people.

Unemployment is one of the major problem in a developing country like India. The number of unemployed persons increases as the population explodes. Our development plans fail to provide employment for all the unemployed youth. In spite of the Five Year Plans, this problem continues to be serious as ever. Unemployment may be defined as "a situation in which the person is capable of working both physically and mentally at the existing wage rate, but does not get a job to work". In other words, unemployment means only involuntary unemployment wherein a person who is willing to work at the existing wage rate does not get a job.


According to the census 2011, ten million Indians with graduate, post-graduate and technical degrees were looking for work, means that 15 per cent Indians having higher education are seeking job. Kerala had India's highest graduate unemployment rate at over 30 per cent. Overall, India's unemployment rate grew from 6.8 per cent in 2001 to 9.6 per cent in 2011, based on official census data. Unemployment grew faster for illiterates than for literates.

There are different types of unemployment prevailing in India which include
  • Disguised unemployment in which more people are doing work than actually required. Even if some are withdrawn, production does not suffer. Agriculture is the best example of this type of unemployment. 
  • Seasonal unemployment occurs during certain seasons of the year. People engaged in industries like holiday resorts, ice factories and so on may remain unemployed during the off-season. Cyclical unemployment is caused by trade cycles at regular intervals. There is greater unemployment when there is depression and a large number of people are rendered unemployed. 
  • Educated unemployment wherein many are underemployed because their qualification does not match the job. 
  • Structural unemployment arises due to drastic changes in the economic structure of a country.
  • Frictional unemployment caused due to improper adjustment between supply of labour and demand of labour. 
There are number of factors responsible for the high unemployment rate in India. The most important cause is the growing population in India. The population of India has reached to 1.21 billion making it the second most populous country in the world. The growth of population directly encourages the unemployment by making a large addition to labour force. Another reason for unemployment is the availability of land which is limited.

Indian population is increasing rapidly, therefore, the land is not sufficient for the growing population. As a result, there is heavy pressure on the land. It creates the situation of unemployment for a large number of people who depend on agriculture in rural areas.

The present education system in India is also to some extent responsible for the growth of unemployment. The day-to-day education is very defective and is confined within the class room only. The system is not job oriented, it is degree oriented. Thus, the people who are getting general education are unable to do any work.

Apart from this, in villages, unemployment is due to lack of cottage industries. The cottage industries are in a winding state. They give whole time occupation to only a fraction of the people who depend on them.

The problem of unemployment also has adverse effects on the economy and society. It causes loss of human resources. Labourers waste their maximum time in search of employment. It deprives a man from all sources of income. 

As a result, he grows poor. Therefore, unemployment generates poverty. Apart from this, unemployment breeds many social problems comprising of dishonesty, gambling, bribery, theft etc. Here is also birth of political instability, due to unemployment unemployed persons can easily be enticed by anti-social elements.

Government should keep a strict watch on the education system and try to implement new ways to generate skilled labour force. Before completing the education a practical knowledge should be given. Apart from this there must be development in agriculture based industries in rural areas so that the rural candidates don't migrate to the urban areas. More employment should be generated in rural areas for the people under seasonal unemployment.

Government has taken many initiatives to tackle with the issue of unemployment in India. Few of the schemes worthy to be mentioned are 
  • Prime Minister's Employment Generation Programme (PMEGP) : The scheme was announced by the Prime Minister on 15th August, 2008. This is credit linked scheme formed by merging erstwhile Rural Employment Generation Programme (REGP) and Prime Minister's Rojgar Yojana (PMRY) scheme. Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC) is the nodal agency at the national level. Its main aim is to generate continuous and sustainable employment opportunities in rural and urban areas of the country. 
  • Swarnjayanthi Gram Swarojgar Yojana (SGSY) : It was launched in April 1999 as a major programme for self-employment of the rural poor after restructuring the then existing Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) and combining it with other allied schemes like TRYSEM, DWCRA, SITRA, GKY and Million Wells Scheme for effective implementation under a single banner called SGSY. 
  • Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) : Guaranting 100 days of employment in a financial year to a rural household whose adult members are willing to do unskilled manual work. This Act is an important step towards the realisation of the right to work. It is also expected to enhance people's livelihood on a sustained basis, by developing the economic and social infrastructure in rural areas.
  • Deen Dayal Kaushal Yojana or DDU-GKY : It is a Government of India Youth Employment scheme which launched on 25th September, 2014. It aims at enhancing the employability of rural youth under the age group of 15-35 years. It also aims at mandatory assured placement to 75% of the trained candidates. 
  • National Skill Development Mission, 2015 : It aims to create convergence across sectors and states in terms of skill training activities. 
  • Make in India Programme : The scheme was launched on 25th September, 2014 has its major objective to focus on job creation and skill enhancement in 25 sectors of the economy. 
Thus, we should keep in mind that one of the most disturbing problems in India has been the mounting rate of unemployment, both in the rural and urban sectors. Unless unemployment problem is solved at war footing, future of India cannot -)e bright. India will need to generate 280 million jobs between now and 2050, the year when the working age population (15 to 64) will peak to reduce unemployment. There will be no peace and prosperity in the country, if jobless people do not get a proper channel. More attention should be given otherwise this problem can make jobless youths to get on the wrong path. 

Difficult Words with Meanings :
  • By leaps and bounds - fast progress
  • Lopsided - Unilateral or one-sided
  • Explode - burst or shatter violently
  • Confined - restricted in area or volume;
  • Deprive - prevent a person from having or using something
  • Enticed - to attract
  • Exploitation - ill treatment, making the most of;
  • Sustained - continuing for an extended period
  • Convergence  - meeting or merging.
shared by Nisheeta Mirchandani
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1 comment:

  1. Good one and nicely explained in a comprehensive and coherent manner.

    ReplyDelete