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October 10, 2017

Reading Comprehension Test for Competitive Exams

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Reading Comprehension Practice test for Competitive Exams

Directions (Q.No.1-10) : Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words /phrases are printed in bold to help you to locate them while answering some of the questions. 

Eating disorders are mental disorders defined by abnormal eating habits that negatively affect a person's physical or mental health. They include Binge eating disorder where people eat a large amount in a short period of time, Anorexia nervosa where people eat very little and thus have a low body weight, Bulimia nervosa where people eat a lot and then try to rid themselves of the food, Pica where people eat non-food items, Rumination disorder where people regurgitate food, avoid-ant/restrictive food intake disorder where people have a lack of interest in food, and a group of other specified feeding or eating disorders. Anxiety disorders, depression, and substance abuse are common among people with eating disorders. Millions of people in the United States are affected by eating disorders. More than 90% of those afflicted are adolescents or young ad-ult women. Although all eating disorders share some common manifestations, Anorexia nervosa, Bulimia nervosa, and Binge eating each have distinctive symptoms and risks.

People who intentionally starve themselves (even while experiencing severe hunger pains) suffer from anorexia nervosa. The disorder, which usually begins around the time of puberty, involves extreme weight loss to at least 15% below the individual's normal body weight. Many people with the disorder look emaciated but are convinced they are overweight. In patients with anorexia nervosa, starvation can damage vital organs such as the heart and brain. To protect itself, the body shifts into slow gear: Menstrual periods stop, blood pressure rates drop, and thyroid function slows. Excessive thirst and frequent urination may occur. Dehydration contributes to constipation, and reduced body fat leads to lowered body temperature and the inability to withstand cold. Mild anemia, swollen joints, reduced mus-cle mass, and lightheadedness also commonly occur in anorexia nervosa.

Anorexia nervosa sufferers can exhibit sudden angry outbursts or be-come socially withdrawn. One in ten cases of anorexia nervosa leads to death from starvation, cardiac arrest, other medical complications, or sui-cide. Clinical depression and anxiety place many individuals with eating disorders at risk for suicidal behavior. 

People with bulimia nervosa consume large amounts of food and then rid their bodies of the excess calories by vomiting, abusing laxati-ves or diuretics, taking enemas, or exercising obsessively. Some use a combination of all these forms of pu-rging. Individuals with bulimia who use drugs to stimulate vomiting, bo-wel movements, or urination may be in considerable danger, as this prac-tice increases the risk of heart failure. Dieting heavily between episodes of binging and purging is common. 

Because many individuals with bulimia will binge and purge in secret and maintain normal or above normal body weight, they can often successfully hide their problem for years. But bulimia nervosa patients-even those of normal weight-can severely damage their bodies by fre-quent binge eating and purging. In rare instances, binge eating causes the stomach to rupture; purging may result in heart failure due to loss of vital minerals such as potassium.

Vomiting can cause the oesopha-gus to become inflamed and glands near the cheeks to become swollen. As in anorexia nervosa, bulimia may lead to irregular menstrual periods. Psych-ological effects include compulsive stealing as well as possible indications of obsessive-compulsive disorder, an illness characterized by repetitive tho-ughts and behaviors. Obsessive com-pulsive disorder can also accompany anorexia nervosa. As with anorexia ne-rvosa, bulimia typically begins during adolescence. Eventually, half of those with anorexia nervosa will develop bu-limia. The condition occurs most often in women but is also found in men. 

Binge-eating disorder is found in about 2% of the general population. As many as one third of this group are men. It also affects older women, tho-ugh with less frequency. Recent res-earch shows that binge-eating disorder occurs in about 30% of people partic-ipating in medically supervised wei-ght-control programs. This disorder differs from bulimia because its suf-ferers do not purge. Individuals with binge-eating disorder feel that they lose control of themselves when eat-ing. They eat large quantities of food and do not stop until they are uncom-fortably full. Most sufferers are over-weight or obese and have a history of weight fluctuations. As a result, they are prone to the serious medical prob-lems associated with obesity, such as high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and diabetes. Obese individuals also have a higher risk for gallbladder dis-ease, heart disease, and some types of cancer. Usually they have more difficulty losing weight and keeping it off than the people with other serious weight problems. Like anorexic and bulimic sufferers who exhibit psycho-logical problems, individuals with binge-eating disorder have high rates of simultaneously occurring psychi-atric illnesses, especially depression. 

  1. Fatalities occur in what percent of people with anorexia nervosa ? 
    1. 2%
    2. 10% 
    3. 15% 
    4. 25% 
    5. 30% 
  2. Which of the following consequences do all the eating disorders mentioned in the passage have in common ? 
    1. Heart ailments 
    2. Stomach rupture 
    3. Swollen joints 
    4. Diabetes 
    5. None of these 
  3. According to the passage, people with binge-eating disorder are prone to all of the following except : 
    1. Loss of control 
    2. Depression 
    3. Low blood pressure 
    4. High cholesterol 
    5. None of these 
  4. Which of the following is not a statement about people with eating disorders ? 
    1. People with anorexia nervosa commonly have a blood-related defficiency. 
    2. People with anorexia nervosa perceive themselves as over-weight. 
    3. The female population is the primary group affected by eating disorders.
    4. Fifty percent of people with bulimia have had anorexia nervosa. 
    5. None of these 
  5. People who have an eating disorder but never the less appear to be of normal weight are most likely to have: 
    1. Obsessive-compulsive disorder 
    2. Bulimia nervosa 
    3. Binge-eating disorder 
    4. Anorexia nervosa 
    5. None of these 
  6. Glandular functions of eating-disorder patients slow down as a result of : 
    1. Lowering body temperatures 
    2. Excessive thirst and urination 
    3. Protective measures taken by the body 
    4. The loss of essential minerals 
    5. None of these 
  7. The inability to eliminate body waste is related to : 
    1. Dehydration
    2. An inflamed esophagus. 
    3. The abuse of laxatives 
    4. Weight-control programs 
    5. None of these
  8. According to the passage, which of the following is true of bulimia patients ? 
    1. They may demonstrate unpredictable social behavior 
    2. They often engage in compulsive exercise 
    3. They are less susceptible to dehydration than are anorexia patients. 
    4. They frequently experience stomach ruptures.
    5. None of these
  9. Choose the word which is opposite in meaning to the word 'Obsessive' as used in the passage. 
    1. Passionate
    2. Abominating 
    3. Feverish
    4. Frenetic 
    5. Dogged 
  10. Choose the word which is most nearly the same in meaning to the word 'rupture' as used in the passage.
    1. Burst 
    2. Snag
    3. Trite 
    4. Menace 
    5. Advantage
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