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July 20, 2016

Reasoning : Statement and Conclusions Problems with Shortcut Methods - Lesson 2

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Friends, in our previous post, we have discussed about the basics of Statement and Conclusion of Reasoning section. Today we shall see some practice problems on this topic. Before going to work on these problems, please read the Introductory lesson on Statement and Conclusions from here. Happy Reading :)

Directions for Question Number 1 to 6 : In each of the questions given below, one or more statement(s) is / are followed by inferential conclusions. The conclusion, which and be derived without supposing anything else, i.e., without adding anything extra to the statement (s), is your answer. 


Statement : The Education Secretary said that it was extremely necessary that the professional researchers along with practicing school teachers conduct the practical research. 

Conclusion :
  • a) Participating teachers know the techniques of research. 
  • b) Professional researchers are quite aware of the problems related to the school education. 
  • c) Educational Secretary was speaking to the school students. 
  • d) There is a communication gap between researchers and the practicing school teachers. 
  • e) School education is quite a specialized field and so long as teacher is not trained, the standard of education can't be qualitatively better. 

Statement : Vehicular source contributes 60% to the total pollution level of Delhi, as the Rajya Sabha was informed today.

Conclusion :
  • a) The court has order that the main source of pollution should be identified. 
  • b) The problem of pollution is high in the agenda of the House. 
  • c) In the other cities also, vehicular source contributes around the same percentage level of pollution. 
  • d) This matter was raised first in the Lok Sabha. 
  • e) Not many towns in India face the problem of pollution. 

Statement : PVC shoe producers union has welcomed the announcement of the relief on production surcharge from Rs. 50 per pair to Rs. 75 per pair.

Conclusions :
  • a) All PVC shoe producers are members of this union. 
  • b) Relief on production surcharge to Rs. 50 on every pair of shoes, had been given only recently. 
  • c) Union had demanded an increase in relief. 
  • d) Government will collect more production surcharge. 
  • e) Other producers will also demand a relief on production surcharge. 

Statement : There are chances of hike in the electricity tariff soon. This proposal will bring about a sharp increase for the industrial consumers and marginal increase for the domestic consumers.

Conclusions :
  • a) At present there is a disparity in the electricity tariff between the domestic and the industrial consumer.s 
  • b) Industrial consumers consume more electricity than the domestic users. 
  • c) Consumption of electricity by the industrial consumers is comparatively lower than the domestic users. 
  • d) After this hike, the electricity board will start making profit. 
  • e) If this proposal is accepted, then industrial output will get positively affected. 

Statement : State Government imposes a monthly tax on the salary of all the employees. The tax amount varies according to the income slab. The Central Government also imposes tax on the same income, which is known as the income tax. This is against the theory of taxation.

Conclusions :
  • a) A regular collection, irrespective of the income slab, by the Central Government is the income tax. 
  • b) The Central Government should not collect any tax on income. 
  • c) Income tax should not vary according to the income slabs.
  • d) Tax should be imposed only once on an individual. 
  • e) The State Government should not impose any tax on income. 

Statement : A forest has as many Sandal Trees as it has Ashoka Trees. Three-fourths of the trees are old and half of the trees are at the flowering stage.

Conclusions :
  • a) All Ashoka trees are at the flowering stage. 
  • b) All sandal trees are at the flowering stage. 
  • c) At least one-half of the Ashoka trees are old. 
  • d) One half of the Sandal trees are at the flowering stage. 
  • e) None of the above.  

Key :

  1. E
  2. B
  3. C
  4. B
  5. D
  6. C

Explanations :

  1. Clearly, the statement gives the sense that if practicing school teachers accompany professional researcher, then teachers will be benefited by the expertise of professionals. As a result, the standard of education will be improved. 
  2. Problem of pollution was discussed in the Rajya Sabha because it was getting priority on the agenda of the house. 
  3. Only conclusion (c) follows because relief on production surcharge follows a demand for the same by union. 
  4. As given in the statement, there is a different treatment for industrial consumers and domestic consumers. It is because of only that industrial consumers consume more electricity than domestic users. 
  5. Only conclusion (d) follows as tax should be imposed only once on an individual. 
  6. Suppose the numbers of Sandal trees and Ashoka trees are 50 each. Therefore, total number of trees will be 100. Out of which 75 trees are old. Hence, it is confirmed that at least one-half of the Ashoka trees are old.
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