Topic 1 : "Cautious cooperation with Japan"
- Cautious - Acts very carefully in order to avoid possible danger.
- Of late - Recently.
- Soft loan - Loan with a very low interest rate.
- Non-proliferation - Limiting of the production and spread of nuclear or chemical weapons.
- Seal - Block.
- Enhanced - To raise the value of.
- Untapped - Something that has not yet been used.
- Wary - Being careful / Watchful.
- Shed - (Here) To get rid of.
- Pacifist - Someone who believes that violence is wrong and refuses to take part in wars.
- Pivoting - Anything on which something depends vitally.
- Forge - To form or make, especially by concentrated effort.
- Bloc - A group of countries that have similar political aims and interest and that acts together over some issues.
Topic 2 : "Get smart on diesel cars"
- From scratch - From nothing / Without resources.
- Scale up - Making something in a greater amount.
- Surge - Sudden increase.
- Substantially - Changes a lot / Very different.
- Commenced - To begin / Start.
- Ubiquitous - Existing or being everywhere.
- Freight - Goods transported for pay.
- Injunction - (Here) Order.
- Holistic - Universal / Common to all.
- Stringent - Very severe and strictly controlled.
- Fleet - Quick.
- Curb - Control.
- Pursuing - To proceed in accordance with.
- To rig - To furnish or provide with.
- Enforcing - To put or keep in force.
- Backdrop - (Here) General situation
- Commuting - To travel regularly over some distance.
- Levy - An imposing or collecting as of a tax.
- Hefty - Large in amount.