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April 22, 2012

Computers - Generations

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The development of computer technology is generally divided into the following phases :

First Generation (1942 - 1956) - Vacuum Tubes

Vacuum tubes is the only electronic components available during those days.
These computers were the fastest calculating devices of that time. They could perform calculations in Milli-Seconds but there were many disadvantages in them. They were too big in size, Not portable, Air-Conditioning was required for their commercial use and production was also difficult. The UNIVAC (UNIVersal Automic Computer) and ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) are the examples of First Generation Computers. 
  • UNIVAC was the first Commercial Computer to a business client the U.S. Census Bureau in 1951 (till then, all computers were for research purpose).
  • ENIAC was the world's first Operational Electornic Digital COmputer.  

Second Generation (1956-1963) - Transistors


The Transistor, a smaller and more r
eliable source than the vacuum tube was invented in 1947 at Bell Labs.  This Transistor is a device made by semiconductor material that amplifies the signal or opens or closes a circuit. However computer that used transistors was not produced in quantity. The second generation emerged with transistors being the brain of Computer. It was smaller in size as compared to first generation computers and more reliable. The disadvantages of it were the requirement of air-conditional room, frequent maintenance that it required, commercial production. 

Third Generation (1964-1971) - Integrated Circuits (ICs)

A new technology called Integrated Circuit was invented in 1963. This technology made a big change in Computer world. The third Generation computers were developed by using this IC technology. In this technology Transistors were miniaturized and placed on Silicon Chips. These Silicon Chips are also called as Semiconductors. These Semiconductors helped to increase the speed and efficiency of Computers. 





Fourth Generation (1971 - Present) - Microprocessors


Microprocessors brought the Fourth Generation computers. The Microprocessor is a Single Silicon Chip which contains some thousands of Integrated Circuits. Simply we can say that it is the heart of Personal Computers. Personal computers were started in Third Generation. With the invention of Microprocessors, They've got a new life. The Microprocessor controls the logic of almost all devices from small clocks to big automobiles. 
There are 3 basic characteristics for Microprocessors. They are.....
  1. Instruction Set : The set of Instructions Given to it and it can execute.
  2. Bandwidth : The number of bits it can process in a single Instruction.
  3. Clock Speed : The number of Instructions per second the processor can execute. These can be measured in MHZs (Megahertz)

Fifth Generation (Present - Future) - Artificial Intelligence

The fifth Generation Computers are based on Artificial Intelligence. Simply Machine Brains. These systems works with the help of Neural Networks. The target of this is to make computers which can think like human. Currently there is no computer in the world which can exibit full artificial intelligence (i mean, to simulate COMPLETE human behavior). Scientists are stilly working on these type of systems. So, we put them in Fifth Generation.


16 comments:

  1. thanks a lot :) useful material...

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  2. nice work...thanks

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  3. really superb........

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  4. thnks alot ma'am...ma'am plzz provide material related to powerpoint....nd sm mre material related to computers...

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    Replies
    1. Sure friend. Thanks for the suggestion. You can get the short notes on PowerPoint and remaining computer related articles by November :)

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    2. thnks a lot ma'am...

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  5. Really useful information and very helpful
    Thanks a lot.......

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  6. very nice &useful material..mam plz provide material about software and powerpoint,,thanks

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  7. Hi.i am harshita..you are superb..i dont have words to appreciate u ppl..u know i have book for preparation but here you have given all material in such a lovely way ..i cudnt resist myself from visiting your site..i prefer reading from your site..u are boon for us ..i love the way u help .. daily updates reply to evry cmmnt..wondrful job..god bless u all..thank you...keep smiling :)

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  8. Hi...mam could you pls tell me if a candidate is b.tech pass out and wants to go in the bank sector then which exams will he have to write for higher posts so that he could earn 1-2 lpa ..pls reply..

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    Replies
    1. The maximum salary you can draw is 60k Friend. That too will take min 5 years if you join as a PO

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  9. Thank you for your reply mam..

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  10. U r superb mam...thanks a lot for providing such a helpfull material....once again thanku very much...,

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  11. mam please tell me what are exact generations years of 5

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